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11. Maximas Database


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11.1 Introduction to Maximas Database


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11.2 Functions and Variables for Properties

Property: alphabetic

alphabetic is a property type recognized by declare. The expression declare(s, alphabetic) tells Maxima to recognize as alphabetic all of the characters in s, which must be a string.

See also Identifiers.

Example:

(%i1) xx\~yy\`\@ : 1729;
(%o1)                         1729
(%i2) declare ("~`@", alphabetic);
(%o2)                         done
(%i3) xx~yy`@ + @yy`xx + `xx@@yy~;
(%o3)               `xx@@yy~ + @yy`xx + 1729
(%i4) listofvars (%);
(%o4)                  [@yy`xx, `xx@@yy~]

Property: bindtest

The command declare(x, bindtest) tells Maxima to trigger an error when the symbol x is evaluated unbound.

(%i1) aa + bb;
(%o1)                        bb + aa
(%i2) declare (aa, bindtest);
(%o2)                         done
(%i3) aa + bb;
aa unbound variable
 -- an error.  Quitting.  To debug this try debugmode(true);
(%i4) aa : 1234;
(%o4)                         1234
(%i5) aa + bb;
(%o5)                       bb + 1234

Property: constant

declare(a, constant) declares a to be a constant. The declaration of a symbol to be constant does not prevent the assignment of a nonconstant value to the symbol.

See constantp and declare.

Example:

(%i1) declare(c, constant);
(%o1)                         done
(%i2) constantp(c);
(%o2)                         true
(%i3) c : x;
(%o3)                           x
(%i4) constantp(c);
(%o4)                         false

Function: constantp (expr)

Returns true if expr is a constant expression, otherwise returns false.

An expression is considered a constant expression if its arguments are numbers (including rational numbers, as displayed with /R/), symbolic constants such as %pi, %e, and %i, variables bound to a constant or declared constant by declare, or functions whose arguments are constant.

constantp evaluates its arguments.

See the property constant which declares a symbol to be constant.

Examples:

(%i1) constantp (7 * sin(2));
(%o1)                                true
(%i2) constantp (rat (17/29));
(%o2)                                true
(%i3) constantp (%pi * sin(%e));
(%o3)                                true
(%i4) constantp (exp (x));
(%o4)                                false
(%i5) declare (x, constant);
(%o5)                                done
(%i6) constantp (exp (x));
(%o6)                                true
(%i7) constantp (foo (x) + bar (%e) + baz (2));
(%o7)                                false
(%i8) 

Categories:  Predicate functions · Constants

Function: declare (a_1, p_1, a_2, p_2, …)

Assigns the atom or list of atoms a_i the property or list of properties p_i. When a_i and/or p_i are lists, each of the atoms gets all of the properties.

declare quotes its arguments. declare always returns done.

As noted in the description for each declaration flag, for some flags featurep(object, feature) returns true if object has been declared to have feature.

For more information about the features system, see features. To remove a property from an atom, use remove.

declare recognizes the following properties:

additive

Tells Maxima to simplify a_i expressions by the substitution a_i(x + y + z + ...) --> a_i(x) + a_i(y) + a_i(z) + .... The substitution is carried out on the first argument only.

alphabetic

Tells Maxima to recognize all characters in a_i (which must be a string) as alphabetic characters.

antisymmetric, commutative, symmetric

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as a symmetric or antisymmetric function. commutative is the same as symmetric.

bindtest

Tells Maxima to trigger an error when a_i is evaluated unbound.

constant

Tells Maxima to consider a_i a symbolic constant.

even, odd

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as an even or odd integer variable.

evenfun, oddfun

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as an odd or even function.

evflag

Makes a_i known to the ev function so that a_i is bound to true during the execution of ev when a_i appears as a flag argument of ev. See evflag.

evfun

Makes a_i known to ev so that the function named by a_i is applied when a_i appears as a flag argument of ev. See evfun.

feature

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as the name of a feature. Other atoms may then be declared to have the a_i property.

increasing, decreasing

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as an increasing or decreasing function.

integer, noninteger

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as an integer or noninteger variable.

integervalued

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as an integer-valued function.

lassociative, rassociative

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as a right-associative or left-associative function.

linear

Equivalent to declaring a_i both outative and additive.

mainvar

Tells Maxima to consider a_i a "main variable". A main variable succeeds all other constants and variables in the canonical ordering of Maxima expressions, as determined by ordergreatp.

multiplicative

Tells Maxima to simplify a_i expressions by the substitution a_i(x * y * z * ...) --> a_i(x) * a_i(y) * a_i(z) * .... The substitution is carried out on the first argument only.

nary

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as an n-ary function.

The nary declaration is not the same as calling the nary function. The sole effect of declare(foo, nary) is to instruct the Maxima simplifier to flatten nested expressions, for example, to simplify foo(x, foo(y, z)) to foo(x, y, z).

nonarray

Tells Maxima to consider a_i not an array. This declaration prevents multiple evaluation of a subscripted variable name.

nonscalar

Tells Maxima to consider a_i a nonscalar variable. The usual application is to declare a variable as a symbolic vector or matrix.

noun

Tells Maxima to parse a_i as a noun. The effect of this is to replace instances of a_i with 'a_i or nounify(a_i), depending on the context.

outative

Tells Maxima to simplify a_i expressions by pulling constant factors out of the first argument.

When a_i has one argument, a factor is considered constant if it is a literal or declared constant.

When a_i has two or more arguments, a factor is considered constant if the second argument is a symbol and the factor is free of the second argument.

posfun

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as a positive function.

rational, irrational

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as a rational or irrational real variable.

real, imaginary, complex

Tells Maxima to recognize a_i as a real, pure imaginary, or complex variable.

scalar

Tells Maxima to consider a_i a scalar variable.

Examples of the usage of the properties are available in the documentation for each separate description of a property.

Property: decreasing
Property: increasing

The commands declare(f, decreasing) or declare(f, increasing) tell Maxima to recognize the function f as an decreasing or increasing function.

See also declare for more properties.

Example:

(%i1) assume(a > b);
(%o1)                        [a > b]
(%i2) is(f(a) > f(b));
(%o2)                        unknown
(%i3) declare(f, increasing);
(%o3)                         done
(%i4) is(f(a) > f(b));
(%o4)                         true

Property: even
Property: odd

declare(a, even) or declare(a, odd) tells Maxima to recognize the symbol a as an even or odd integer variable. The properties even and odd are not recognized by the functions evenp, oddp, and integerp.

See also declare and askinteger.

Example:

(%i1) declare(n, even);
(%o1)                         done
(%i2) askinteger(n, even);
(%o2)                          yes
(%i3) askinteger(n);
(%o3)                          yes
(%i4) evenp(n);
(%o4)                         false

Property: feature

Maxima understands two distinct types of features, system features and features which apply to mathematical expressions. See also status for information about system features. See also features and featurep for information about mathematical features.

feature itself is not the name of a function or variable.

Function: featurep (a, f)

Attempts to determine whether the object a has the feature f on the basis of the facts in the current database. If so, it returns true, else false.

Note that featurep returns false when neither f nor the negation of f can be established.

featurep evaluates its argument.

See also declare and features.

(%i1) declare (j, even)$
(%i2) featurep (j, integer);
(%o2)                           true

Declaration: features

Maxima recognizes certain mathematical properties of functions and variables. These are called "features".

declare (x, foo) gives the property foo to the function or variable x.

declare (foo, feature) declares a new feature foo. For example, declare ([red, green, blue], feature) declares three new features, red, green, and blue.

The predicate featurep (x, foo) returns true if x has the foo property, and false otherwise.

The infolist features is a list of known features. These are

   integer        noninteger      even
   odd            rational        irrational
   real           imaginary       complex
   analytic       increasing      decreasing
   oddfun         evenfun         posfun
   constant       commutative     lassociative
   rassociative   symmetric       antisymmetric
   integervalued

plus any user-defined features.

features is a list of mathematical features. There is also a list of non-mathematical, system-dependent features. See status.

Example:

(%i1) declare (FOO, feature);
(%o1)                         done
(%i2) declare (x, FOO);
(%o2)                         done
(%i3) featurep (x, FOO);
(%o3)                         true

Function: get (a, i)

Retrieves the user property indicated by i associated with atom a or returns false if a doesn't have property i.

get evaluates its arguments.

See also put and qput.

(%i1) put (%e, 'transcendental, 'type);
(%o1)                    transcendental
(%i2) put (%pi, 'transcendental, 'type)$
(%i3) put (%i, 'algebraic, 'type)$
(%i4) typeof (expr) := block ([q],
        if numberp (expr)
        then return ('algebraic),
        if not atom (expr)
        then return (maplist ('typeof, expr)),
        q: get (expr, 'type),
        if q=false
        then errcatch (error(expr,"is not numeric.")) else q)$
(%i5) typeof (2*%e + x*%pi);
x is not numeric.
(%o5)  [[transcendental, []], [algebraic, transcendental]]
(%i6) typeof (2*%e + %pi);
(%o6)     [transcendental, [algebraic, transcendental]]

Property: integer
Property: noninteger

declare(a, integer) or declare(a, noninteger) tells Maxima to recognize a as an integer or noninteger variable.

See also declare.

Example:

(%i1) declare(n, integer, x, noninteger);
(%o1)                         done
(%i2) askinteger(n);
(%o2)                          yes
(%i3) askinteger(x);
(%o3)                          no

Property: integervalued

declare(f, integervalued) tells Maxima to recognize f as an integer-valued function.

See also declare.

Example:

(%i1) exp(%i)^f(x);
                              %i f(x)
(%o1)                      (%e  )
(%i2) declare(f, integervalued);
(%o2)                         done
(%i3) exp(%i)^f(x);
                              %i f(x)
(%o3)                       %e

Property: nonarray

The command declare(a, nonarray) tells Maxima to consider a not an array. This declaration prevents multiple evaluation, if a is a subscripted variable.

See also declare.

Example:

(%i1) a:'b$ b:'c$ c:'d$

(%i4) a[x];
(%o4)                          d
                                x
(%i5) declare(a, nonarray);
(%o5)                         done
(%i6) a[x];
(%o6)                          a
                                x

Categories:  Expressions

Property: nonscalar

Makes atoms behave as does a list or matrix with respect to the dot operator.

See also declare.

Function: nonscalarp (expr)

Returns true if expr is a non-scalar, i.e., it contains atoms declared as non-scalars, lists, or matrices.

See also the predicate function scalarp and declare.

Categories:  Predicate functions · Vectors · Matrices

Property: posfun

declare (f, posfun) declares f to be a positive function. is (f(x) > 0) yields true.

See also declare.

Function: printprops  
    printprops (a, i)  
    printprops ([a_1, …, a_n], i)  
    printprops (all, i)

Displays the property with the indicator i associated with the atom a. a may also be a list of atoms or the atom all in which case all of the atoms with the given property will be used. For example, printprops ([f, g], atvalue). printprops is for properties that cannot otherwise be displayed, i.e. for atvalue, atomgrad, gradef, and matchdeclare.

Function: properties (a)

Returns a list of the names of all the properties associated with the atom a.

System variable: props

Default value: []

props are atoms which have any property other than those explicitly mentioned in infolists, such as specified by atvalue, matchdeclare, etc., as well as properties specified in the declare function.

Function: propvars (prop)

Returns a list of those atoms on the props list which have the property indicated by prop. Thus propvars (atvalue) returns a list of atoms which have atvalues.

Function: put (atom, value, indicator)

Assigns value to the property (specified by indicator) of atom. indicator may be the name of any property, not just a system-defined property.

rem reverses the effect of put.

put evaluates its arguments. put returns value.

See also qput and get.

Examples:

(%i1) put (foo, (a+b)^5, expr);
                                   5
(%o1)                       (b + a)
(%i2) put (foo, "Hello", str);
(%o2)                         Hello
(%i3) properties (foo);
(%o3)            [[user properties, str, expr]]
(%i4) get (foo, expr);
                                   5
(%o4)                       (b + a)
(%i5) get (foo, str);
(%o5)                         Hello

Function: qput (atom, value, indicator)

Assigns value to the property (specified by indicator) of atom. This is the same as put, except that the arguments are quoted.

See also get.

Example:

(%i1) foo: aa$ 
(%i2) bar: bb$
(%i3) baz: cc$
(%i4) put (foo, bar, baz);
(%o4)                          bb
(%i5) properties (aa);
(%o5)                [[user properties, cc]]
(%i6) get (aa, cc);
(%o6)                          bb
(%i7) qput (foo, bar, baz);
(%o7)                          bar
(%i8) properties (foo);
(%o8)            [value, [user properties, baz]]
(%i9) get ('foo, 'baz);
(%o9)                          bar

Property: rational
Property: irrational

declare(a, rational) or declare(a, irrational) tells Maxima to recognize a as a rational or irrational real variable.

See also declare.

Property: real
Property: imaginary
Property: complex

declare(a, real), declare(a, imaginary), or declare(a, complex) tells Maxima to recognize a as a real, pure imaginary, or complex variable.

See also declare.

Function: rem (atom, indicator)

Removes the property indicated by indicator from atom. rem reverses the effect of put.

rem returns done if atom had an indicator property when rem was called, or false if it had no such property.

Function: remove  
    remove (a_1, p_1, …, a_n, p_n)  
    remove ([a_1, …, a_m], [p_1, …, p_n], …)  
    remove ("a", operator)  
    remove (a, transfun)  
    remove (all, p)

Removes properties associated with atoms.

remove (a_1, p_1, ..., a_n, p_n) removes property p_k from atom a_k.

remove ([a_1, ..., a_m], [p_1, ..., p_n], ...) removes properties p_1, ..., p_n from atoms a_1, …, a_m. There may be more than one pair of lists.

remove (all, p) removes the property p from all atoms which have it.

The removed properties may be system-defined properties such as function, macro, or mode_declare. remove does not remove properties defined by put.

A property may be transfun to remove the translated Lisp version of a function. After executing this, the Maxima version of the function is executed rather than the translated version.

remove ("a", operator) or, equivalently, remove ("a", op) removes from a the operator properties declared by prefix, infix, nary, postfix, matchfix, or nofix. Note that the name of the operator must be written as a quoted string.

remove always returns done whether or not an atom has a specified property. This behavior is unlike the more specific remove functions remvalue, remarray, remfunction, and remrule.

remove quotes its arguments.

Property: scalar

declare(a, scalar) tells Maxima to consider a a scalar variable.

See also declare.

Function: scalarp (expr)

Returns true if expr is a number, constant, or variable declared scalar with declare, or composed entirely of numbers, constants, and such variables, but not containing matrices or lists.

See also the predicate function nonscalarp.

Categories:  Predicate functions · Vectors · Matrices


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11.3 Functions and Variables for Facts

Function: activate (context_1, …, context_n)

Activates the contexts context_1, …, context_n. The facts in these contexts are then available to make deductions and retrieve information. The facts in these contexts are not listed by facts ().

The variable activecontexts is the list of contexts which are active by way of the activate function.

System variable: activecontexts

Default value: []

activecontexts is a list of the contexts which are active by way of the activate function, as opposed to being active because they are subcontexts of the current context.

Function: askinteger  
    askinteger (expr, integer)  
    askinteger (expr)  
    askinteger (expr, even)  
    askinteger (expr, odd)

askinteger (expr, integer) attempts to determine from the assume database whether expr is an integer. askinteger prompts the user if it cannot tell otherwise, and attempt to install the information in the database if possible. askinteger (expr) is equivalent to askinteger (expr, integer).

askinteger (expr, even) and askinteger (expr, odd) likewise attempt to determine if expr is an even integer or odd integer, respectively.

Function: asksign (expr)

First attempts to determine whether the specified expression is positive, negative, or zero. If it cannot, it asks the user the necessary questions to complete its deduction. The user's answer is recorded in the data base for the duration of the current computation. The return value of asksign is one of pos, neg, or zero.

Function: assume (pred_1, …, pred_n)

Adds predicates pred_1, …, pred_n to the current context. If a predicate is inconsistent or redundant with the predicates in the current context, it is not added to the context. The context accumulates predicates from each call to assume.

assume returns a list whose elements are the predicates added to the context or the atoms redundant or inconsistent where applicable.

The predicates pred_1, …, pred_n can only be expressions with the relational operators < <= equal notequal >= and >. Predicates cannot be literal equality = or literal inequality # expressions, nor can they be predicate functions such as integerp.

Compound predicates of the form pred_1 and ... and pred_n are recognized, but not pred_1 or ... or pred_n. not pred_k is recognized if pred_k is a relational predicate. Expressions of the form not (pred_1 and pred_2) and not (pred_1 or pred_2) are not recognized.

Maxima's deduction mechanism is not very strong; there are many obvious consequences which cannot be determined by is. This is a known weakness.

assume does not handle predicates with complex numbers. If a predicate contains a complex number assume returns inconsistent or redunant.

assume evaluates its arguments.

See also is, facts, forget, context, and declare.

Examples:

(%i1) assume (xx > 0, yy < -1, zz >= 0);
(%o1)              [xx > 0, yy < - 1, zz >= 0]
(%i2) assume (aa < bb and bb < cc);
(%o2)                  [bb > aa, cc > bb]
(%i3) facts ();
(%o3)     [xx > 0, - 1 > yy, zz >= 0, bb > aa, cc > bb]
(%i4) is (xx > yy);
(%o4)                         true
(%i5) is (yy < -yy);
(%o5)                         true
(%i6) is (sinh (bb - aa) > 0);
(%o6)                         true
(%i7) forget (bb > aa);
(%o7)                       [bb > aa]
(%i8) prederror : false;
(%o8)                         false
(%i9) is (sinh (bb - aa) > 0);
(%o9)                        unknown
(%i10) is (bb^2 < cc^2);
(%o10)                       unknown

Option variable: assumescalar

Default value: true

assumescalar helps govern whether expressions expr for which nonscalarp (expr) is false are assumed to behave like scalars for certain transformations.

Let expr represent any expression other than a list or a matrix, and let [1, 2, 3] represent any list or matrix. Then expr . [1, 2, 3] yields [expr, 2 expr, 3 expr] if assumescalar is true, or scalarp (expr) is true, or constantp (expr) is true.

If assumescalar is true, such expressions will behave like scalars only for commutative operators, but not for noncommutative multiplication ..

When assumescalar is false, such expressions will behave like non-scalars.

When assumescalar is all, such expressions will behave like scalars for all the operators listed above.

Option variable: assume_pos

Default value: false

When assume_pos is true and the sign of a parameter x cannot be determined from the current context or other considerations, sign and asksign (x) return true. This may forestall some automatically-generated asksign queries, such as may arise from integrate or other computations.

By default, a parameter is x such that symbolp (x) or subvarp (x). The class of expressions considered parameters can be modified to some extent via the variable assume_pos_pred.

sign and asksign attempt to deduce the sign of expressions from the sign of operands within the expression. For example, if a and b are both positive, then a + b is also positive.

However, there is no way to bypass all asksign queries. In particular, when the asksign argument is a difference x - y or a logarithm log(x), asksign always requests an input from the user, even when assume_pos is true and assume_pos_pred is a function which returns true for all arguments.

Option variable: assume_pos_pred

Default value: false

When assume_pos_pred is assigned the name of a function or a lambda expression of one argument x, that function is called to determine whether x is considered a parameter for the purpose of assume_pos. assume_pos_pred is ignored when assume_pos is false.

The assume_pos_pred function is called by sign and asksign with an argument x which is either an atom, a subscripted variable, or a function call expression. If the assume_pos_pred function returns true, x is considered a parameter for the purpose of assume_pos.

By default, a parameter is x such that symbolp (x) or subvarp (x).

See also assume and assume_pos.

Examples:

(%i1) assume_pos: true$
(%i2) assume_pos_pred: symbolp$
(%i3) sign (a);
(%o3)                          pos
(%i4) sign (a[1]);
(%o4)                          pnz
(%i5) assume_pos_pred: lambda ([x], display (x), true)$
(%i6) asksign (a);
                              x = a

(%o6)                          pos
(%i7) asksign (a[1]);
                             x = a
                                  1

(%o7)                          pos
(%i8) asksign (foo (a));
                           x = foo(a)

(%o8)                          pos
(%i9) asksign (foo (a) + bar (b));
                           x = foo(a)

                           x = bar(b)

(%o9)                          pos
(%i10) asksign (log (a));
                              x = a

Is  a - 1  positive, negative, or zero?

p;
(%o10)                         pos
(%i11) asksign (a - b);
                              x = a

                              x = b

                              x = a

                              x = b

Is  b - a  positive, negative, or zero?

p;
(%o11)                         neg

Option variable: context

Default value: initial

context names the collection of facts maintained by assume and forget. assume adds facts to the collection named by context, while forget removes facts.

Binding context to a name foo changes the current context to foo. If the specified context foo does not yet exist, it is created automatically by a call to newcontext. The specified context is activated automatically.

See contexts for a general description of the context mechanism.

Option variable: contexts

Default value: [initial, global]

contexts is a list of the contexts which currently exist, including the currently active context.

The context mechanism makes it possible for a user to bind together and name a collection of facts, called a context. Once this is done, the user can have Maxima assume or forget large numbers of facts merely by activating or deactivating their context.

Any symbolic atom can be a context, and the facts contained in that context will be retained in storage until destroyed one by one by calling forget or destroyed as a whole by calling kill to destroy the context to which they belong.

Contexts exist in a hierarchy, with the root always being the context global, which contains information about Maxima that some functions need. When in a given context, all the facts in that context are "active" (meaning that they are used in deductions and retrievals) as are all the facts in any context which is a subcontext of the active context.

When a fresh Maxima is started up, the user is in a context called initial, which has global as a subcontext.

See also facts, newcontext, supcontext, killcontext, activate, deactivate, assume, and forget.

Function: deactivate (context_1, …, context_n)

Deactivates the specified contexts context_1, …, context_n.

Function: facts  
    facts (item)  
    facts ()

If item is the name of a context, facts (item) returns a list of the facts in the specified context.

If item is not the name of a context, facts (item) returns a list of the facts known about item in the current context. Facts that are active, but in a different context, are not listed.

facts () (i.e., without an argument) lists the current context.

Function: forget  
    forget (pred_1, …, pred_n)  
    forget (L)

Removes predicates established by assume. The predicates may be expressions equivalent to (but not necessarily identical to) those previously assumed.

forget (L), where L is a list of predicates, forgets each item on the list.

Function: is (expr)

Attempts to determine whether the predicate expr is provable from the facts in the assume database.

If the predicate is provably true or false, is returns true or false, respectively. Otherwise, the return value is governed by the global flag prederror. When prederror is true, is complains with an error message. Otherwise, is returns unknown.

ev(expr, pred) (which can be written expr, pred at the interactive prompt) is equivalent to is(expr).

See also assume, facts, and maybe.

Examples:

is causes evaluation of predicates.

(%i1) %pi > %e;
(%o1)                       %pi > %e
(%i2) is (%pi > %e);
(%o2)                         true

is attempts to derive predicates from the assume database.

(%i1) assume (a > b);
(%o1)                        [a > b]
(%i2) assume (b > c);
(%o2)                        [b > c]
(%i3) is (a < b);
(%o3)                         false
(%i4) is (a > c);
(%o4)                         true
(%i5) is (equal (a, c));
(%o5)                         false

If is can neither prove nor disprove a predicate from the assume database, the global flag prederror governs the behavior of is.

(%i1) assume (a > b);
(%o1)                        [a > b]
(%i2) prederror: true$
(%i3) is (a > 0);
Maxima was unable to evaluate the predicate:
a > 0
 -- an error.  Quitting.  To debug this try debugmode(true);
(%i4) prederror: false$
(%i5) is (a > 0);
(%o5)                        unknown

Function: killcontext (context_1, …, context_n)

Kills the contexts context_1, …, context_n.

If one of the contexts is the current context, the new current context will become the first available subcontext of the current context which has not been killed. If the first available unkilled context is global then initial is used instead. If the initial context is killed, a new, empty initial context is created.

killcontext refuses to kill a context which is currently active, either because it is a subcontext of the current context, or by use of the function activate.

killcontext evaluates its arguments. killcontext returns done.

Function: maybe (expr)

Attempts to determine whether the predicate expr is provable from the facts in the assume database.

If the predicate is provably true or false, maybe returns true or false, respectively. Otherwise, maybe returns unknown.

maybe is functionally equivalent to is with prederror: false, but the result is computed without actually assigning a value to prederror.

See also assume, facts, and is.

Examples:

(%i1) maybe (x > 0);
(%o1)                        unknown
(%i2) assume (x > 1);
(%o2)                        [x > 1]
(%i3) maybe (x > 0);
(%o3)                         true

Function: newcontext  
    newcontext (name)  
    newcontext ()

Creates a new, empty context, called name, which has global as its only subcontext. The newly-created context becomes the currently active context.

If name is not specified, a new name is created (via gensym) and returned.

newcontext evaluates its argument. newcontext returns name (if specified) or the new context name.

Function: sign (expr)

Attempts to determine the sign of expr on the basis of the facts in the current data base. It returns one of the following answers: pos (positive), neg (negative), zero, pz (positive or zero), nz (negative or zero), pn (positive or negative), or pnz (positive, negative, or zero, i.e. nothing known).

Function: supcontext  
    supcontext (name, context)  
    supcontext (name)  
    supcontext ()

Creates a new context, called name, which has context as a subcontext. context must exist.

If context is not specified, the current context is assumed.

If name is not specified, a new name is created (via gensym) and returned.

supcontext evaluates its argument. supcontext returns name (if specified) or the new context name.


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11.4 Functions and Variables for Predicates

Function: charfun (p)

Return 0 when the predicate p evaluates to false; return 1 when the predicate evaluates to true. When the predicate evaluates to something other than true or false (unknown), return a noun form.

Examples:

(%i1) charfun (x < 1);
(%o1)                    charfun(x < 1)
(%i2) subst (x = -1, %);
(%o2)                           1
(%i3) e : charfun ('"and" (-1 < x, x < 1))$
(%i4) [subst (x = -1, e), subst (x = 0, e), subst (x = 1, e)];
(%o4)                       [0, 1, 0]

Categories:  Mathematical functions

Function: compare (x, y)

Return a comparison operator op (<, <=, >, >=, =, or #) such that is (x op y) evaluates to true; when either x or y depends on %i and x # y, return notcomparable; when there is no such operator or Maxima isn't able to determine the operator, return unknown.

Examples:

(%i1) compare (1, 2);
(%o1)                           <
(%i2) compare (1, x);
(%o2)                        unknown
(%i3) compare (%i, %i);
(%o3)                           =
(%i4) compare (%i, %i + 1);
(%o4)                     notcomparable
(%i5) compare (1/x, 0);
(%o5)                           #
(%i6) compare (x, abs(x));
(%o6)                          <=

The function compare doesn't try to determine whether the real domains of its arguments are nonempty; thus

(%i1) compare (acos (x^2 + 1), acos (x^2 + 1) + 1);
(%o1)                           <

The real domain of acos (x^2 + 1) is empty.

Function: equal (a, b)

Represents equivalence, that is, equal value.

By itself, equal does not evaluate or simplify. The function is attempts to evaluate equal to a Boolean value. is(equal(a, b)) returns true (or false) if and only if a and b are equal (or not equal) for all possible values of their variables, as determined by evaluating ratsimp(a - b); if ratsimp returns 0, the two expressions are considered equivalent. Two expressions may be equivalent even if they are not syntactically equal (i.e., identical).

When is fails to reduce equal to true or false, the result is governed by the global flag prederror. When prederror is true, is complains with an error message. Otherwise, is returns unknown.

In addition to is, some other operators evaluate equal and notequal to true or false, namely if, and, or, and not.

The negation of equal is notequal.

Examples:

By itself, equal does not evaluate or simplify.

(%i1) equal (x^2 - 1, (x + 1) * (x - 1));
                        2
(%o1)            equal(x  - 1, (x - 1) (x + 1))
(%i2) equal (x, x + 1);
(%o2)                    equal(x, x + 1)
(%i3) equal (x, y);
(%o3)                      equal(x, y)

The function is attempts to evaluate equal to a Boolean value. is(equal(a, b)) returns true when ratsimp(a - b) returns 0. Two expressions may be equivalent even if they are not syntactically equal (i.e., identical).

(%i1) ratsimp (x^2 - 1 - (x + 1) * (x - 1));
(%o1)                           0
(%i2) is (equal (x^2 - 1, (x + 1) * (x - 1)));
(%o2)                         true
(%i3) is (x^2 - 1 = (x + 1) * (x - 1));
(%o3)                         false
(%i4) ratsimp (x - (x + 1));
(%o4)                          - 1
(%i5) is (equal (x, x + 1));
(%o5)                         false
(%i6) is (x = x + 1);
(%o6)                         false
(%i7) ratsimp (x - y);
(%o7)                         x - y
(%i8) is (equal (x, y));
(%o8)                        unknown
(%i9) is (x = y);
(%o9)                         false

When is fails to reduce equal to true or false, the result is governed by the global flag prederror.

(%i1) [aa : x^2 + 2*x + 1, bb : x^2 - 2*x - 1];
                    2             2
(%o1)             [x  + 2 x + 1, x  - 2 x - 1]
(%i2) ratsimp (aa - bb);
(%o2)                        4 x + 2
(%i3) prederror : true;
(%o3)                         true
(%i4) is (equal (aa, bb));
Maxima was unable to evaluate the predicate:
       2             2
equal(x  + 2 x + 1, x  - 2 x - 1)
 -- an error.  Quitting.  To debug this try debugmode(true);
(%i5) prederror : false;
(%o5)                         false
(%i6) is (equal (aa, bb));
(%o6)                        unknown

Some operators evaluate equal and notequal to true or false.

(%i1) if equal (y, y - 1) then FOO else BAR;
(%o1)                          BAR
(%i2) eq_1 : equal (x, x + 1);
(%o2)                    equal(x, x + 1)
(%i3) eq_2 : equal (y^2 + 2*y + 1, (y + 1)^2);
                         2                   2
(%o3)             equal(y  + 2 y + 1, (y + 1) )
(%i4) [eq_1 and eq_2, eq_1 or eq_2, not eq_1];
(%o4)                  [false, true, true]

Because not expr causes evaluation of expr, not equal(a, b) is equivalent to is(notequal(a, b)).

(%i1) [notequal (2*z, 2*z - 1), not equal (2*z, 2*z - 1)];
(%o1)            [notequal(2 z, 2 z - 1), true]
(%i2) is (notequal (2*z, 2*z - 1));
(%o2)                         true

Categories:  Operators

Function: notequal (a, b)

Represents the negation of equal(a, b).

Examples:

(%i1) equal (a, b);
(%o1)                      equal(a, b)
(%i2) maybe (equal (a, b));
(%o2)                        unknown
(%i3) notequal (a, b);
(%o3)                    notequal(a, b)
(%i4) not equal (a, b);
(%o4)                    notequal(a, b)
(%i5) maybe (notequal (a, b));
(%o5)                        unknown
(%i6) assume (a > b);
(%o6)                        [a > b]
(%i7) equal (a, b);
(%o7)                      equal(a, b)
(%i8) maybe (equal (a, b));
(%o8)                         false
(%i9) notequal (a, b);
(%o9)                    notequal(a, b)
(%i10) maybe (notequal (a, b));
(%o10)                        true

Categories:  Operators

Function: unknown (expr)

Returns true if and only if expr contains an operator or function not recognized by the Maxima simplifier.

Function: zeroequiv (expr, v)

Tests whether the expression expr in the variable v is equivalent to zero, returning true, false, or dontknow.

zeroequiv has these restrictions:

  1. Do not use functions that Maxima does not know how to differentiate and evaluate.
  2. If the expression has poles on the real line, there may be errors in the result (but this is unlikely to occur).
  3. If the expression contains functions which are not solutions to first order differential equations (e.g. Bessel functions) there may be incorrect results.
  4. The algorithm uses evaluation at randomly chosen points for carefully selected subexpressions. This is always a somewhat hazardous business, although the algorithm tries to minimize the potential for error.

For example zeroequiv (sin(2 * x) - 2 * sin(x) * cos(x), x) returns true and zeroequiv (%e^x + x, x) returns false. On the other hand zeroequiv (log(a * b) - log(a) - log(b), a) returns dontknow because of the presence of an extra parameter b.

Categories:  Predicate functions


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