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7.1 Introduction to operators | ||
7.2 Arithmetic operators | ||
7.3 Relational operators | ||
7.4 Logical operators | ||
7.5 Operators for Equations | ||
7.6 Assignment operators | ||
7.7 User defined operators |
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It is possible to define new operators with specified precedence, to undefine existing operators, or to redefine the precedence of existing operators. An operator may be unary prefix or unary postfix, binary infix, n-ary infix, matchfix, or nofix. "Matchfix" means a pair of symbols which enclose their argument or arguments, and "nofix" means an operator which takes no arguments. As examples of the different types of operators, there are the following.
negation - a
factorial a!
exponentiation a^b
addition a + b
list construction [a, b]
(There are no built-in nofix operators; for an example of such an operator,
see nofix
.)
The mechanism to define a new operator is straightforward. It is only necessary to declare a function as an operator; the operator function might or might not be defined.
An example of user-defined operators is the following. Note that the explicit
function call "dd" (a)
is equivalent to dd a
, likewise
"<-" (a, b)
is equivalent to a <- b
. Note also that the functions
"dd"
and "<-"
are undefined in this example.
(%i1) prefix ("dd"); (%o1) dd (%i2) dd a; (%o2) dd a (%i3) "dd" (a); (%o3) dd a (%i4) infix ("<-"); (%o4) <- (%i5) a <- dd b; (%o5) a <- dd b (%i6) "<-" (a, "dd" (b)); (%o6) a <- dd b
The Maxima functions which define new operators are summarized in this table, stating the default left and right binding powers (lbp and rbp, respectively). (Binding power determines operator precedence. However, since left and right binding powers can differ, binding power is somewhat more complicated than precedence.) Some of the operation definition functions take additional arguments; see the function descriptions for details.
prefix
rbp=180
postfix
lbp=180
infix
lbp=180, rbp=180
nary
lbp=180, rbp=180
matchfix
(binding power not applicable)
nofix
(binding power not applicable)
For comparison, here are some built-in operators and their left and right binding powers.
Operator lbp rbp : 180 20 :: 180 20 := 180 20 ::= 180 20 ! 160 !! 160 ^ 140 139 . 130 129 * 120 / 120 120 + 100 100 - 100 134 = 80 80 # 80 80 > 80 80 >= 80 80 < 80 80 <= 80 80 not 70 and 65 or 60 , 10 $ -1 ; -1
remove
and kill
remove operator properties from an atom.
remove ("a", op)
removes only the operator properties of a.
kill ("a")
removes all properties of a, including the
operator properties. Note that the name of the operator must be enclosed in
quotation marks.
(%i1) infix ("##"); (%o1) ## (%i2) "##" (a, b) := a^b; b (%o2) a ## b := a (%i3) 5 ## 3; (%o3) 125 (%i4) remove ("##", op); (%o4) done (%i5) 5 ## 3; Incorrect syntax: # is not a prefix operator 5 ## ^ (%i5) "##" (5, 3); (%o5) 125 (%i6) infix ("##"); (%o6) ## (%i7) 5 ## 3; (%o7) 125 (%i8) kill ("##"); (%o8) done (%i9) 5 ## 3; Incorrect syntax: # is not a prefix operator 5 ## ^ (%i9) "##" (5, 3); (%o9) ##(5, 3)
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The symbols +
*
/
and ^
represent addition,
multiplication, division, and exponentiation, respectively. The names of these
operators are "+"
"*"
"/"
and "^"
, which may appear
where the name of a function or operator is required.
The symbols +
and -
represent unary addition and negation,
respectively, and the names of these operators are "+"
and "-"
,
respectively.
Subtraction a - b
is represented within Maxima as addition,
a + (- b)
. Expressions such as a + (- b)
are displayed as
subtraction. Maxima recognizes "-"
only as the name of the unary
negation operator, and not as the name of the binary subtraction operator.
Division a / b
is represented within Maxima as multiplication,
a * b^(- 1)
. Expressions such as a * b^(- 1)
are displayed as
division. Maxima recognizes "/"
as the name of the division operator.
Addition and multiplication are n-ary, commutative operators. Division and exponentiation are binary, noncommutative operators.
Maxima sorts the operands of commutative operators to construct a canonical
representation. For internal storage, the ordering is determined by
orderlessp
. For display, the ordering for addition is determined by
ordergreatp
, and for multiplication, it is the same as the internal
ordering.
Arithmetic computations are carried out on literal numbers (integers, rationals,
ordinary floats, and bigfloats). Except for exponentiation, all arithmetic
operations on numbers are simplified to numbers. Exponentiation is simplified
to a number if either operand is an ordinary float or bigfloat or if the result
is an exact integer or rational; otherwise an exponentiation may be simplified
to sqrt
or another exponentiation or left unchanged.
Floating-point contagion applies to arithmetic computations: if any operand is a bigfloat, the result is a bigfloat; otherwise, if any operand is an ordinary float, the result is an ordinary float; otherwise, the operands are rationals or integers and the result is a rational or integer.
Arithmetic computations are a simplification, not an evaluation. Thus arithmetic is carried out in quoted (but simplified) expressions.
Arithmetic operations are applied element-by-element to lists when the global
flag listarith
is true
, and always applied element-by-element to
matrices. When one operand is a list or matrix and another is an operand of
some other type, the other operand is combined with each of the elements of the
list or matrix.
Examples:
Addition and multiplication are n-ary, commutative operators.
Maxima sorts the operands to construct a canonical representation.
The names of these operators are "+"
and "*"
.
(%i1) c + g + d + a + b + e + f; (%o1) g + f + e + d + c + b + a (%i2) [op (%), args (%)]; (%o2) [+, [g, f, e, d, c, b, a]] (%i3) c * g * d * a * b * e * f; (%o3) a b c d e f g (%i4) [op (%), args (%)]; (%o4) [*, [a, b, c, d, e, f, g]] (%i5) apply ("+", [a, 8, x, 2, 9, x, x, a]); (%o5) 3 x + 2 a + 19 (%i6) apply ("*", [a, 8, x, 2, 9, x, x, a]); 2 3 (%o6) 144 a x
Division and exponentiation are binary, noncommutative operators.
The names of these operators are "/"
and "^"
.
(%i1) [a / b, a ^ b]; a b (%o1) [-, a ] b (%i2) [map (op, %), map (args, %)]; (%o2) [[/, ^], [[a, b], [a, b]]] (%i3) [apply ("/", [a, b]), apply ("^", [a, b])]; a b (%o3) [-, a ] b
Subtraction and division are represented internally in terms of addition and multiplication, respectively.
(%i1) [inpart (a - b, 0), inpart (a - b, 1), inpart (a - b, 2)]; (%o1) [+, a, - b] (%i2) [inpart (a / b, 0), inpart (a / b, 1), inpart (a / b, 2)]; 1 (%o2) [*, a, -] b
Computations are carried out on literal numbers. Floating-point contagion applies.
(%i1) 17 + b - (1/2)*29 + 11^(2/4); 5 (%o1) b + sqrt(11) + - 2 (%i2) [17 + 29, 17 + 29.0, 17 + 29b0]; (%o2) [46, 46.0, 4.6b1]
Arithmetic computations are a simplification, not an evaluation.
(%i1) simp : false; (%o1) false (%i2) '(17 + 29*11/7 - 5^3); 29 11 3 (%o2) 17 + ----- - 5 7 (%i3) simp : true; (%o3) true (%i4) '(17 + 29*11/7 - 5^3); 437 (%o4) - --- 7
Arithmetic is carried out element-by-element for lists (depending on
listarith
) and matrices.
(%i1) matrix ([a, x], [h, u]) - matrix ([1, 2], [3, 4]); [ a - 1 x - 2 ] (%o1) [ ] [ h - 3 u - 4 ] (%i2) 5 * matrix ([a, x], [h, u]); [ 5 a 5 x ] (%o2) [ ] [ 5 h 5 u ] (%i3) listarith : false; (%o3) false (%i4) [a, c, m, t] / [1, 7, 2, 9]; [a, c, m, t] (%o4) ------------ [1, 7, 2, 9] (%i5) [a, c, m, t] ^ x; x (%o5) [a, c, m, t] (%i6) listarith : true; (%o6) true (%i7) [a, c, m, t] / [1, 7, 2, 9]; c m t (%o7) [a, -, -, -] 7 2 9 (%i8) [a, c, m, t] ^ x; x x x x (%o8) [a , c , m , t ]
Categories: Operators
Exponentiation operator.
Maxima recognizes **
as the same operator as ^
in input,
and it is displayed as ^
in 1-dimensional output,
or by placing the exponent as a superscript in 2-dimensional output.
The fortran
function displays the exponentiation operator as **
,
whether it was input as **
or ^
.
Examples:
(%i1) is (a**b = a^b); (%o1) true (%i2) x**y + x^z; z y (%o2) x + x (%i3) string (x**y + x^z); (%o3) x^z+x^y (%i4) fortran (x**y + x^z); x**z+x**y (%o4) done
Categories: Operators
Noncommutative exponentiation operator.
^^
is the exponentiation operator corresponding to noncommutative
multiplication .
, just as the ordinary exponentiation operator ^
corresponds to commutative multiplication *
.
Noncommutative exponentiation is displayed by ^^
in 1-dimensional output,
and by placing the exponent as a superscript within angle brackets < >
in 2-dimensional output.
Examples:
(%i1) a . a . b . b . b + a * a * a * b * b; 3 2 <2> <3> (%o1) a b + a . b (%i2) string (a . a . b . b . b + a * a * a * b * b); (%o2) a^3*b^2+a^^2 . b^^3
Categories: Operators
The dot operator, for matrix (non-commutative) multiplication.
When "."
is used in this way, spaces should be left on both sides of
it, e.g. A . B
. This distinguishes it plainly from a decimal point in
a floating point number.
See also
dot
,
dot0nscsimp
,
dot0simp
,
dot1simp
,
dotassoc
,
dotconstrules
,
dotdistrib
,
dotexptsimp
,
dotident
,
and
dotscrules
.
Categories: Operators
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The symbols <
<=
>=
and >
represent less than, less
than or equal, greater than or equal, and greater than, respectively. The names
of these operators are "<"
"<="
">="
and ">"
, which
may appear where the name of a function or operator is required.
These relational operators are all binary operators; constructs such as
a < b < c
are not recognized by Maxima.
Relational expressions are evaluated to Boolean values by the functions
is
and maybe
, and the programming constructs
if
, while
, and unless
. Relational expressions
are not otherwise evaluated or simplified to Boolean values, although the
arguments of relational expressions are evaluated (when evaluation is not
otherwise prevented by quotation).
When a relational expression cannot be evaluated to true
or false
,
the behavior of is
and if
are governed by the global flag
prederror
. When prederror
is true
, is
and
if
trigger an error. When prederror
is false
, is
returns unknown
, and if
returns a partially-evaluated conditional
expression.
maybe
always behaves as if prederror
were false
, and
while
and unless
always behave as if prederror
were
true
.
Relational operators do not distribute over lists or other aggregates.
See also =
, #
, equal
, and notequal
.
Examples:
Relational expressions are evaluated to Boolean values by some functions and programming constructs.
(%i1) [x, y, z] : [123, 456, 789]; (%o1) [123, 456, 789] (%i2) is (x < y); (%o2) true (%i3) maybe (y > z); (%o3) false (%i4) if x >= z then 1 else 0; (%o4) 0 (%i5) block ([S], S : 0, for i:1 while i <= 100 do S : S + i, return (S)); (%o5) 5050
Relational expressions are not otherwise evaluated or simplified to Boolean values, although the arguments of relational expressions are evaluated.
(%o1) [123, 456, 789] (%i2) [x < y, y <= z, z >= y, y > z]; (%o2) [123 < 456, 456 <= 789, 789 >= 456, 456 > 789] (%i3) map (is, %); (%o3) [true, true, true, false]
Categories: Operators
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The logical conjunction operator. and
is an n-ary infix operator;
its operands are Boolean expressions, and its result is a Boolean value.
and
forces evaluation (like is
) of one or more operands,
and may force evaluation of all operands.
Operands are evaluated in the order in which they appear. and
evaluates
only as many of its operands as necessary to determine the result. If any
operand is false
, the result is false
and no further operands are
evaluated.
The global flag prederror
governs the behavior of and
when an
evaluated operand cannot be determined to be true
or false
.
and
prints an error message when prederror
is true
.
Otherwise, operands which do not evaluate to true
or false
are
accepted, and the result is a Boolean expression.
and
is not commutative: a and b
might not be equal to
b and a
due to the treatment of indeterminate operands.
Categories: Operators
The logical negation operator. not
is a prefix operator;
its operand is a Boolean expression, and its result is a Boolean value.
not
forces evaluation (like is
) of its operand.
The global flag prederror
governs the behavior of not
when its
operand cannot be determined to be true
or false
. not
prints an error message when prederror
is true
. Otherwise,
operands which do not evaluate to true
or false
are accepted,
and the result is a Boolean expression.
Categories: Operators
The logical disjunction operator. or
is an n-ary infix operator;
its operands are Boolean expressions, and its result is a Boolean value.
or
forces evaluation (like is
) of one or more operands,
and may force evaluation of all operands.
Operands are evaluated in the order in which they appear. or
evaluates
only as many of its operands as necessary to determine the result. If any
operand is true
, the result is true
and no further operands are
evaluated.
The global flag prederror
governs the behavior of or
when an
evaluated operand cannot be determined to be true
or false
.
or
prints an error message when prederror
is true
.
Otherwise, operands which do not evaluate to true
or false
are
accepted, and the result is a Boolean expression.
or
is not commutative: a or b
might not be equal to b or a
due to the treatment of indeterminate operands.
Categories: Operators
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Represents the negation of syntactic equality =
.
Note that because of the rules for evaluation of predicate expressions
(in particular because not expr
causes evaluation of expr),
not a = b
is equivalent to is(a # b)
,
instead of a # b
.
Examples:
(%i1) a = b; (%o1) a = b (%i2) is (a = b); (%o2) false (%i3) a # b; (%o3) a # b (%i4) not a = b; (%o4) true (%i5) is (a # b); (%o5) true (%i6) is (not a = b); (%o6) true
Categories: Operators
The equation operator.
An expression a = b
, by itself, represents an unevaluated
equation, which might or might not hold. Unevaluated equations may appear as
arguments to solve
and algsys
or some other functions.
The function is
evaluates =
to a Boolean value.
is(a = b)
evaluates a = b
to true
when a and b are identical. That is, a and b are atoms
which are identical, or they are not atoms and their operators are identical and
their arguments are identical. Otherwise, is(a = b)
evaluates to false
; it never evaluates to unknown
. When
is(a = b)
is true
, a and b are said to be
syntactically equal, in contrast to equivalent expressions, for which
is(equal(a, b))
is true
. Expressions can be
equivalent and not syntactically equal.
The negation of =
is represented by #
.
As with =
, an expression a # b
, by itself, is not
evaluated. is(a # b)
evaluates a # b
to
true
or false
.
In addition to is
, some other operators evaluate =
and #
to true
or false
, namely if
, and
,
or
, and not
.
Note that because of the rules for evaluation of predicate expressions
(in particular because not expr
causes evaluation of expr),
not a = b
is equivalent to is(a # b)
,
instead of a # b
.
rhs
and lhs
return the right-hand and left-hand sides,
respectively, of an equation or inequation.
Examples:
An expression a = b
, by itself, represents
an unevaluated equation, which might or might not hold.
(%i1) eq_1 : a * x - 5 * y = 17; (%o1) a x - 5 y = 17 (%i2) eq_2 : b * x + 3 * y = 29; (%o2) 3 y + b x = 29 (%i3) solve ([eq_1, eq_2], [x, y]); 196 29 a - 17 b (%o3) [[x = ---------, y = -----------]] 5 b + 3 a 5 b + 3 a (%i4) subst (%, [eq_1, eq_2]); 196 a 5 (29 a - 17 b) (%o4) [--------- - --------------- = 17, 5 b + 3 a 5 b + 3 a 196 b 3 (29 a - 17 b) --------- + --------------- = 29] 5 b + 3 a 5 b + 3 a (%i5) ratsimp (%); (%o5) [17 = 17, 29 = 29]
is(a = b)
evaluates a = b
to true
when a and b are syntactically equal (that is, identical).
Expressions can be equivalent and not syntactically equal.
(%i1) a : (x + 1) * (x - 1); (%o1) (x - 1) (x + 1) (%i2) b : x^2 - 1; 2 (%o2) x - 1 (%i3) [is (a = b), is (a # b)]; (%o3) [false, true] (%i4) [is (equal (a, b)), is (notequal (a, b))]; (%o4) [true, false]
Some operators evaluate =
and #
to true
or false
.
(%i1) if expand ((x + y)^2) = x^2 + 2 * x * y + y^2 then FOO else BAR; (%o1) FOO (%i2) eq_3 : 2 * x = 3 * x; (%o2) 2 x = 3 x (%i3) eq_4 : exp (2) = %e^2; 2 2 (%o3) %e = %e (%i4) [eq_3 and eq_4, eq_3 or eq_4, not eq_3]; (%o4) [false, true, true]
Because not expr
causes evaluation of expr,
not a = b
is equivalent to is(a # b)
.
(%i1) [2 * x # 3 * x, not (2 * x = 3 * x)]; (%o1) [2 x # 3 x, true] (%i2) is (2 * x # 3 * x); (%o2) true
Categories: Operators
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Assignment operator.
When the left-hand side is a simple variable (not subscripted), :
evaluates its right-hand side and associates that value with the left-hand side.
When the left-hand side is a subscripted element of a list, matrix, declared Maxima array, or Lisp array, the right-hand side is assigned to that element. The subscript must name an existing element; such objects cannot be extended by naming nonexistent elements.
When the left-hand side is a subscripted element of an undeclared Maxima array, the right-hand side is assigned to that element, if it already exists, or a new element is allocated, if it does not already exist.
When the left-hand side is a list of simple and/or subscripted variables, the right-hand side must evaluate to a list, and the elements of the right-hand side are assigned to the elements of the left-hand side, in parallel.
See also kill
and remvalue
, which undo the association between
the left-hand side and its value.
Examples:
Assignment to a simple variable.
(%i1) a; (%o1) a (%i2) a : 123; (%o2) 123 (%i3) a; (%o3) 123
Assignment to an element of a list.
(%i1) b : [1, 2, 3]; (%o1) [1, 2, 3] (%i2) b[3] : 456; (%o2) 456 (%i3) b; (%o3) [1, 2, 456]
Assignment creates an undeclared array.
(%i1) c[99] : 789; (%o1) 789 (%i2) c[99]; (%o2) 789 (%i3) c; (%o3) c (%i4) arrayinfo (c); (%o4) [hashed, 1, [99]] (%i5) listarray (c); (%o5) [789]
Multiple assignment.
(%i1) [a, b, c] : [45, 67, 89]; (%o1) [45, 67, 89] (%i2) a; (%o2) 45 (%i3) b; (%o3) 67 (%i4) c; (%o4) 89
Multiple assignment is carried out in parallel.
The values of a
and b
are exchanged in this example.
(%i1) [a, b] : [33, 55]; (%o1) [33, 55] (%i2) [a, b] : [b, a]; (%o2) [55, 33] (%i3) a; (%o3) 55 (%i4) b; (%o4) 33
Categories: Evaluation · Operators
Assignment operator.
::
is the same as :
(which see) except that ::
evaluates
its left-hand side as well as its right-hand side.
Examples:
(%i1) x : 'foo; (%o1) foo (%i2) x :: 123; (%o2) 123 (%i3) foo; (%o3) 123 (%i4) x : '[a, b, c]; (%o4) [a, b, c] (%i5) x :: [11, 22, 33]; (%o5) [11, 22, 33] (%i6) a; (%o6) 11 (%i7) b; (%o7) 22 (%i8) c; (%o8) 33
Categories: Evaluation · Operators
Macro function definition operator.
::=
defines a function (called a "macro" for historical reasons) which
quotes its arguments, and the expression which it returns (called the "macro
expansion") is evaluated in the context from which the macro was called.
A macro function is otherwise the same as an ordinary function.
macroexpand
returns a macro expansion (without evaluating it).
macroexpand (foo (x))
followed by ''%
is equivalent to
foo (x)
when foo
is a macro function.
::=
puts the name of the new macro function onto the global list
macros
. kill
, remove
, and remfunction
unbind macro function definitions and remove names from macros
.
fundef
or dispfun
return a macro function definition or assign it
to a label, respectively.
Macro functions commonly contain buildq
and splice
expressions to
construct an expression, which is then evaluated.
Examples
A macro function quotes its arguments, so message (1) shows y - z
, not
the value of y - z
. The macro expansion (the quoted expression
'(print ("(2) x is equal to", x))
) is evaluated in the context from which
the macro was called, printing message (2).
(%i1) x: %pi$ (%i2) y: 1234$ (%i3) z: 1729 * w$ (%i4) printq1 (x) ::= block (print ("(1) x is equal to", x), '(print ("(2) x is equal to", x)))$ (%i5) printq1 (y - z); (1) x is equal to y - z (2) x is equal to %pi (%o5) %pi
An ordinary function evaluates its arguments, so message (1) shows the value of
y - z
. The return value is not evaluated, so message (2) is not printed
until the explicit evaluation ''%
.
(%i1) x: %pi$ (%i2) y: 1234$ (%i3) z: 1729 * w$ (%i4) printe1 (x) := block (print ("(1) x is equal to", x), '(print ("(2) x is equal to", x)))$ (%i5) printe1 (y - z); (1) x is equal to 1234 - 1729 w (%o5) print((2) x is equal to, x) (%i6) ''%; (2) x is equal to %pi (%o6) %pi
macroexpand
returns a macro expansion.
macroexpand (foo (x))
followed by ''%
is equivalent to
foo (x)
when foo
is a macro function.
(%i1) x: %pi$ (%i2) y: 1234$ (%i3) z: 1729 * w$ (%i4) g (x) ::= buildq ([x], print ("x is equal to", x))$ (%i5) macroexpand (g (y - z)); (%o5) print(x is equal to, y - z) (%i6) ''%; x is equal to 1234 - 1729 w (%o6) 1234 - 1729 w (%i7) g (y - z); x is equal to 1234 - 1729 w (%o7) 1234 - 1729 w
Categories: Function definition · Operators
The function definition operator.
f(x_1, ..., x_n) := expr
defines a function named
f with arguments x_1, …, x_n and function body
expr. :=
never evaluates the function body (unless explicitly
evaluated by quote-quote ''
).
The function body is evaluated every time the function is called.
f[x_1, ..., x_n] := expr
defines a so-called array function.
Its function body is evaluated just once for each distinct value of its arguments,
and that value is returned, without evaluating the function body,
whenever the arguments have those values again.
(A function of this kind is commonly known as a "memoizing function".)
f[x_1, ..., x_n](y_1, ..., y_m) := expr
is a special case of an array function.
f[x_1, ..., x_n]
is an array function which returns a lambda expression
with arguments y_1, ..., y_m
.
The function body is evaluated once for each distinct value of x_1, ..., x_n
,
and the body of the lambda expression is that value.
When the last or only function argument x_n is a list of one element, the
function defined by :=
accepts a variable number of arguments. Actual
arguments are assigned one-to-one to formal arguments x_1, …,
x_(n - 1), and any further actual arguments, if present, are assigned to
x_n as a list.
All function definitions appear in the same namespace; defining a function
f
within another function g
does not automatically limit the scope
of f
to g
. However, local(f)
makes the definition of
function f
effective only within the block or other compound expression
in which local
appears.
If some formal argument x_k is a quoted symbol, the function defined by
:=
does not evaluate the corresponding actual argument. Otherwise all
actual arguments are evaluated.
Examples:
:=
never evaluates the function body (unless explicitly evaluated by
quote-quote).
(%i1) expr : cos(y) - sin(x); (%o1) cos(y) - sin(x) (%i2) F1 (x, y) := expr; (%o2) F1(x, y) := expr (%i3) F1 (a, b); (%o3) cos(y) - sin(x) (%i4) F2 (x, y) := ''expr; (%o4) F2(x, y) := cos(y) - sin(x) (%i5) F2 (a, b); (%o5) cos(b) - sin(a)
f(x_1, ..., x_n) := ...
defines an ordinary function.
(%i1) G1(x, y) := (print ("Evaluating G1 for x=", x, "and y=", y), x.y - y.x); (%o1) G1(x, y) := (print("Evaluating G1 for x=", x, "and y=", y), x . y - y . x) (%i2) G1([1, a], [2, b]); Evaluating G1 for x= [1, a] and y= [2, b] (%o2) 0 (%i3) G1([1, a], [2, b]); Evaluating G1 for x= [1, a] and y= [2, b] (%o3) 0
f[x_1, ..., x_n] := ...
defines an array function.
(%i1) G2[a] := (print ("Evaluating G2 for a=", a), a^2); 2 (%o1) G2 := (print("Evaluating G2 for a=", a), a ) a (%i2) G2[1234]; Evaluating G2 for a= 1234 (%o2) 1522756 (%i3) G2[1234]; (%o3) 1522756 (%i4) G2[2345]; Evaluating G2 for a= 2345 (%o4) 5499025 (%i5) arrayinfo (G2); (%o5) [hashed, 1, [1234], [2345]] (%i6) listarray (G2); (%o6) [1522756, 5499025]
f[x_1, ..., x_n](y_1, ..., y_m) := expr
is a special case of an array function.
(%i1) G3[n](x) := (print ("Evaluating G3 for n=", n), diff (sin(x)^2, x, n)); (%o1) G3 (x) := (print("Evaluating G3 for n=", n), n 2 diff(sin (x), x, n)) (%i2) G3[2]; Evaluating G3 for n= 2 2 2 (%o2) lambda([x], 2 cos (x) - 2 sin (x)) (%i3) G3[2]; 2 2 (%o3) lambda([x], 2 cos (x) - 2 sin (x)) (%i4) G3[2](1); 2 2 (%o4) 2 cos (1) - 2 sin (1) (%i5) arrayinfo (G3); (%o5) [hashed, 1, [2]] (%i6) listarray (G3); 2 2 (%o6) [lambda([x], 2 cos (x) - 2 sin (x))]
When the last or only function argument x_n is a list of one element,
the function defined by :=
accepts a variable number of arguments.
(%i1) H ([L]) := apply ("+", L); (%o1) H([L]) := apply("+", L) (%i2) H (a, b, c); (%o2) c + b + a
local
makes a local function definition.
(%i1) foo (x) := 1 - x; (%o1) foo(x) := 1 - x (%i2) foo (100); (%o2) - 99 (%i3) block (local (foo), foo (x) := 2 * x, foo (100)); (%o3) 200 (%i4) foo (100); (%o4) - 99
Categories: Function definition · Operators
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Declares op to be an infix operator. An infix operator is a function of
two arguments, with the name of the function written between the arguments.
For example, the subtraction operator -
is an infix operator.
infix (op)
declares op to be an infix operator with default
binding powers (left and right both equal to 180) and parts of speech (left and
right both equal to any
).
infix (op, lbp, rbp)
declares op to be an infix
operator with stated left and right binding powers and default parts of speech
(left and right both equal to any
).
infix (op, lbp, rbp, lpos, rpos, pos)
declares op to be an infix operator with stated left and right binding
powers and parts of speech lpos, rpos, and pos for the left
operand, the right operand, and the operator result, respectively.
"Part of speech", in reference to operator declarations, means expression type.
Three types are recognized: expr
, clause
, and any
,
indicating an algebraic expression, a Boolean expression, or any kind of
expression, respectively. Maxima can detect some syntax errors by comparing the
declared part of speech to an actual expression.
The precedence of op with respect to other operators derives from the left and right binding powers of the operators in question. If the left and right binding powers of op are both greater the left and right binding powers of some other operator, then op takes precedence over the other operator. If the binding powers are not both greater or less, some more complicated relation holds.
The associativity of op depends on its binding powers. Greater left binding power (lbp) implies an instance of op is evaluated before other operators to its left in an expression, while greater right binding power (rbp) implies an instance of op is evaluated before other operators to its right in an expression. Thus greater lbp makes op right-associative, while greater rbp makes op left-associative. If lbp is equal to rbp, op is left-associative.
See also Introduction to operators.
Examples:
If the left and right binding powers of op are both greater the left and right binding powers of some other operator, then op takes precedence over the other operator.
(%i1) :lisp (get '$+ 'lbp) 100 (%i1) :lisp (get '$+ 'rbp) 100 (%i1) infix ("##", 101, 101); (%o1) ## (%i2) "##"(a, b) := sconcat("(", a, ",", b, ")"); (%o2) (a ## b) := sconcat("(", a, ",", b, ")") (%i3) 1 + a ## b + 2; (%o3) (a,b) + 3 (%i4) infix ("##", 99, 99); (%o4) ## (%i5) 1 + a ## b + 2; (%o5) (a+1,b+2)
Greater lbp makes op right-associative, while greater rbp makes op left-associative.
(%i1) infix ("##", 100, 99); (%o1) ## (%i2) "##"(a, b) := sconcat("(", a, ",", b, ")")$ (%i3) foo ## bar ## baz; (%o3) (foo,(bar,baz)) (%i4) infix ("##", 100, 101); (%o4) ## (%i5) foo ## bar ## baz; (%o5) ((foo,bar),baz)
Maxima can detect some syntax errors by comparing the declared part of speech to an actual expression.
(%i1) infix ("##", 100, 99, expr, expr, expr); (%o1) ## (%i2) if x ## y then 1 else 0; Incorrect syntax: Found algebraic expression where logical expression expected if x ## y then ^ (%i2) infix ("##", 100, 99, expr, expr, clause); (%o2) ## (%i3) if x ## y then 1 else 0; (%o3) if x ## y then 1 else 0
Categories: Operators · Declarations and inferences · Syntax
Declares a matchfix operator with left and right delimiters ldelimiter and rdelimiter. The delimiters are specified as strings.
A "matchfix" operator is a function of any number of arguments,
such that the arguments occur between matching left and right delimiters.
The delimiters may be any strings, so long as the parser can
distinguish the delimiters from the operands
and other expressions and operators.
In practice this rules out unparseable delimiters such as
%
, ,
, $
and ;
,
and may require isolating the delimiters with white space.
The right delimiter can be the same or different from the left delimiter.
A left delimiter can be associated with only one right delimiter; two different matchfix operators cannot have the same left delimiter.
An existing operator may be redeclared as a matchfix operator
without changing its other properties.
In particular, built-in operators such as addition +
can
be declared matchfix,
but operator functions cannot be defined for built-in operators.
The command matchfix (ldelimiter, rdelimiter, arg_pos,
pos)
declares the argument part-of-speech arg_pos and result
part-of-speech pos, and the delimiters ldelimiter and
rdelimiter.
"Part of speech", in reference to operator declarations, means expression type.
Three types are recognized: expr
, clause
, and any
,
indicating an algebraic expression, a Boolean expression, or any kind of
expression, respectively.
Maxima can detect some syntax errors by comparing the
declared part of speech to an actual expression.
The function to carry out a matchfix operation is an ordinary
user-defined function.
The operator function is defined
in the usual way
with the function definition operator :=
or define
.
The arguments may be written between the delimiters,
or with the left delimiter as a quoted string and the arguments
following in parentheses.
dispfun (ldelimiter)
displays the function definition.
The only built-in matchfix operator is the list constructor [ ]
.
Parentheses ( )
and double-quotes " "
act like matchfix operators,
but are not treated as such by the Maxima parser.
matchfix
evaluates its arguments.
matchfix
returns its first argument, ldelimiter.
Examples:
Delimiters may be almost any strings.
(%i1) matchfix ("@@", "~"); (%o1) @@ (%i2) @@ a, b, c ~; (%o2) @@a, b, c~ (%i3) matchfix (">>", "<<"); (%o3) >> (%i4) >> a, b, c <<; (%o4) >>a, b, c<< (%i5) matchfix ("foo", "oof"); (%o5) foo (%i6) foo a, b, c oof; (%o6) fooa, b, coof (%i7) >> w + foo x, y oof + z << / @@ p, q ~; >>z + foox, yoof + w<< (%o7) ---------------------- @@p, q~
Matchfix operators are ordinary user-defined functions.
(%i1) matchfix ("!-", "-!"); (%o1) "!-" (%i2) !- x, y -! := x/y - y/x; x y (%o2) !-x, y-! := - - - y x (%i3) define (!-x, y-!, x/y - y/x); x y (%o3) !-x, y-! := - - - y x (%i4) define ("!-" (x, y), x/y - y/x); x y (%o4) !-x, y-! := - - - y x (%i5) dispfun ("!-"); x y (%t5) !-x, y-! := - - - y x (%o5) done (%i6) !-3, 5-!; 16 (%o6) - -- 15 (%i7) "!-" (3, 5); 16 (%o7) - -- 15
An nary
operator is used to denote a function of any number of arguments,
each of which is separated by an occurrence of the operator, e.g. A+B or A+B+C.
The nary("x")
function is a syntax extension function to declare x
to be an nary
operator. Functions may be declared to be nary
. If
declare(j,nary);
is done, this tells the simplifier to simplify, e.g.
j(j(a,b),j(c,d))
to j(a, b, c, d)
.
See also Introduction to operators.
nofix
operators are used to denote functions of no arguments.
The mere presence of such an operator in a command will cause the
corresponding function to be evaluated. For example, when one types
"exit;" to exit from a Maxima break, "exit" is behaving similar to a
nofix
operator. The function nofix("x")
is a syntax extension
function which declares x
to be a nofix
operator.
See also Introduction to operators.
postfix
operators like the prefix
variety denote functions of a
single argument, but in this case the argument immediately precedes an
occurrence of the operator in the input string, e.g. 3!. The
postfix("x")
function is a syntax extension function to declare x
to be a postfix
operator.
See also Introduction to operators.
A prefix
operator is one which signifies a function of one argument,
which argument immediately follows an occurrence of the operator.
prefix("x")
is a syntax extension function to declare x
to be a
prefix
operator.
See also Introduction to operators.
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