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5.1 Numbers | ||

5.2 Strings | ||

5.3 Constants | ||

5.4 Lists | ||

5.5 Arrays | ||

5.6 Structures |

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5.1.1 Introduction to Numbers | ||

5.1.2 Functions and Variables for Numbers |

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A complex expression is specified in Maxima by adding the real part of the
expression to `%i`

times the imaginary part. Thus the roots of the
equation `x^2 - 4*x + 13 = 0`

are `2 + 3*%i`

and `2 - 3*%i`

.
Note that simplification of products of complex expressions can be effected by
expanding the product. Simplification of quotients, roots, and other functions
of complex expressions can usually be accomplished by using the `realpart`

,
`imagpart`

, `rectform`

, `polarform`

, `abs`

, `carg`

functions.

Categories: Complex variables

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__Function:__**bfloat***(*`expr`)Converts all numbers and functions of numbers in

`expr`to bigfloat numbers. The number of significant digits in the resulting bigfloats is specified by the global variable`fpprec`

.When

`float2bf`

is`false`

a warning message is printed when a floating point number is converted into a bigfloat number (since this may lead to loss of precision).Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Function:__**bfloatp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a bigfloat number, otherwise`false`

.Categories: Numerical evaluation · Predicate functions

__Option variable:__**bftorat**Default value:

`false`

`bftorat`

controls the conversion of bfloats to rational numbers. When`bftorat`

is`false`

,`ratepsilon`

will be used to control the conversion (this results in relatively small rational numbers). When`bftorat`

is`true`

, the rational number generated will accurately represent the bfloat.Note:

`bftorat`

has no effect on the transformation to rational numbers with the function`rationalize`

.Example:

(%i1) ratepsilon:1e-4; (%o1) 1.e-4 (%i2) rat(bfloat(11111/111111)), bftorat:false; `rat' replaced 9.99990999991B-2 by 1/10 = 1.0B-1 1 (%o2)/R/ -- 10 (%i3) rat(bfloat(11111/111111)), bftorat:true; `rat' replaced 9.99990999991B-2 by 11111/111111 = 9.99990999991B-2 11111 (%o3)/R/ ------ 111111

Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Option variable:__**bftrunc**Default value:

`true`

`bftrunc`

causes trailing zeroes in non-zero bigfloat numbers not to be displayed. Thus, if`bftrunc`

is`false`

,`bfloat (1)`

displays as`1.000000000000000B0`

. Otherwise, this is displayed as`1.0B0`

.Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Function:__**evenp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a literal even integer, otherwise`false`

.`evenp`

returns`false`

if`expr`is a symbol, even if`expr`is declared`even`

.Categories: Predicate functions

__Function:__**float***(*`expr`)Converts integers, rational numbers and bigfloats in

`expr`to floating point numbers. It is also an`evflag`

,`float`

causes non-integral rational numbers and bigfloat numbers to be converted to floating point.Categories: Numerical evaluation · Evaluation flags

__Option variable:__**float2bf**Default value:

`true`

When

`float2bf`

is`false`

, a warning message is printed when a floating point number is converted into a bigfloat number (since this may lead to loss of precision).Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Function:__**floatnump***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a floating point number, otherwise`false`

.Categories: Numerical evaluation · Predicate functions

__Option variable:__**fpprec**Default value: 16

`fpprec`

is the number of significant digits for arithmetic on bigfloat numbers.`fpprec`

does not affect computations on ordinary floating point numbers.See also

`bfloat`

and`fpprintprec`

.Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Option variable:__**fpprintprec**Default value: 0

`fpprintprec`

is the number of digits to print when printing an ordinary float or bigfloat number.For ordinary floating point numbers, when

`fpprintprec`

has a value between 2 and 16 (inclusive), the number of digits printed is equal to`fpprintprec`

. Otherwise,`fpprintprec`

is 0, or greater than 16, and the number of digits printed is 16.For bigfloat numbers, when

`fpprintprec`

has a value between 2 and`fpprec`

(inclusive), the number of digits printed is equal to`fpprintprec`

. Otherwise,`fpprintprec`

is 0, or greater than`fpprec`

, and the number of digits printed is equal to`fpprec`

.For both ordinary floats and bigfloats, trailing zero digits are suppressed. The actual number of digits printed is less than

`fpprintprec`

if there are trailing zero digits.`fpprintprec`

cannot be 1.Categories: Numerical evaluation · Display flags and variables

__Function:__**integerp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a literal numeric integer, otherwise`false`

.`integerp`

returns`false`

if`expr`is a symbol, even if`expr`is declared`integer`

.Examples:

(%i1) integerp (0); (%o1) true (%i2) integerp (1); (%o2) true (%i3) integerp (-17); (%o3) true (%i4) integerp (0.0); (%o4) false (%i5) integerp (1.0); (%o5) false (%i6) integerp (%pi); (%o6) false (%i7) integerp (n); (%o7) false (%i8) declare (n, integer); (%o8) done (%i9) integerp (n); (%o9) false

Categories: Predicate functions

__Option variable:__**m1pbranch**Default value:

`false`

`m1pbranch`

is the principal branch for`-1`

to a power. Quantities such as`(-1)^(1/3)`

(that is, an "odd" rational exponent) and`(-1)^(1/4)`

(that is, an "even" rational exponent) are handled as follows:domain:real (-1)^(1/3): -1 (-1)^(1/4): (-1)^(1/4) domain:complex m1pbranch:false m1pbranch:true (-1)^(1/3) 1/2+%i*sqrt(3)/2 (-1)^(1/4) sqrt(2)/2+%i*sqrt(2)/2

Categories: Expressions · Global flags

__Function:__**nonnegintegerp***(*`n`)Return

`true`

if and only if

and`n`>= 0`n`is an integer.Categories: Package linearalgebra · Predicate functions

__Function:__**numberp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a literal integer, rational number, floating point number, or bigfloat, otherwise`false`

.`numberp`

returns`false`

if`expr`is a symbol, even if`expr`is a symbolic number such as`%pi`

or`%i`

, or declared to be`even`

,`odd`

,`integer`

,`rational`

,`irrational`

,`real`

,`imaginary`

, or`complex`

.Examples:

(%i1) numberp (42); (%o1) true (%i2) numberp (-13/19); (%o2) true (%i3) numberp (3.14159); (%o3) true (%i4) numberp (-1729b-4); (%o4) true (%i5) map (numberp, [%e, %pi, %i, %phi, inf, minf]); (%o5) [false, false, false, false, false, false] (%i6) declare (a, even, b, odd, c, integer, d, rational, e, irrational, f, real, g, imaginary, h, complex); (%o6) done (%i7) map (numberp, [a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h]); (%o7) [false, false, false, false, false, false, false, false]

Categories: Predicate functions

__Option variable:__**numer**`numer`

causes some mathematical functions (including exponentiation) with numerical arguments to be evaluated in floating point. It causes variables in`expr`

which have been given numerals to be replaced by their values. It also sets the`float`

switch on.See also

`%enumer`

.Examples:

(%i1) [sqrt(2), sin(1), 1/(1+sqrt(3))]; 1 (%o1) [sqrt(2), sin(1), -----------] sqrt(3) + 1 (%i2) [sqrt(2), sin(1), 1/(1+sqrt(3))],numer; (%o2) [1.414213562373095, 0.8414709848078965, 0.3660254037844387]

Categories: Numerical evaluation · Evaluation flags

__Option variable:__**numer_pbranch**Default value:

`false`

The option variable

`numer_pbranch`

controls the numerical evaluation of the power of a negative integer, rational, or floating point number. When`numer_pbranch`

is`true`

and the exponent is a floating point number or the option variable`numer`

is`true`

too, Maxima evaluates the numerical result using the principal branch. Otherwise a simplified, but not an evaluated result is returned.Examples:

(%i1) (-2)^0.75; 0.75 (%o1) (- 2) (%i2) (-2)^0.75,numer_pbranch:true; (%o2) 1.189207115002721 %i - 1.189207115002721 (%i3) (-2)^(3/4); 3/4 3/4 (%o3) (- 1) 2 (%i4) (-2)^(3/4),numer; 0.75 (%o4) 1.681792830507429 (- 1) (%i5) (-2)^(3/4),numer,numer_pbranch:true; (%o5) 1.189207115002721 %i - 1.189207115002721

Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Function:__**numerval***(*`x_1`,`expr_1`, …,`var_n`,`expr_n`)Declares the variables

`x_1`

, …,`x_n`to have numeric values equal to`expr_1`

, …,`expr_n`

. The numeric value is evaluated and substituted for the variable in any expressions in which the variable occurs if the`numer`

flag is`true`

. See also`ev`

.The expressions

`expr_1`

, …,`expr_n`

can be any expressions, not necessarily numeric.Categories: Declarations and inferences · Numerical evaluation

__Function:__**oddp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a literal odd integer, otherwise`false`

.`oddp`

returns`false`

if`expr`is a symbol, even if`expr`is declared`odd`

.Categories: Predicate functions

__Option variable:__**ratepsilon**Default value:

`2.0e-15`

`ratepsilon`

is the tolerance used in the conversion of floating point numbers to rational numbers, when the option variable`bftorat`

has the value`false`

. See`bftorat`

for an example.Categories: Numerical evaluation · Rational expressions

__Function:__**rationalize***(*`expr`)Convert all double floats and big floats in the Maxima expression

`expr`to their exact rational equivalents. If you are not familiar with the binary representation of floating point numbers, you might be surprised that`rationalize (0.1)`

does not equal 1/10. This behavior isn't special to Maxima - the number 1/10 has a repeating, not a terminating, binary representation.(%i1) rationalize (0.5); 1 (%o1) - 2 (%i2) rationalize (0.1); 3602879701896397 (%o2) ----------------- 36028797018963968 (%i3) fpprec : 5$ (%i4) rationalize (0.1b0); 209715 (%o4) ------- 2097152 (%i5) fpprec : 20$ (%i6) rationalize (0.1b0); 236118324143482260685 (%o6) ---------------------- 2361183241434822606848 (%i7) rationalize (sin (0.1*x + 5.6)); 3602879701896397 x 3152519739159347 (%o7) sin(------------------ + ----------------) 36028797018963968 562949953421312

Categories: Numerical evaluation

__Function:__**ratnump***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a literal integer or ratio of literal integers, otherwise`false`

.Categories: Predicate functions · Rational expressions

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5.2.1 Introduction to Strings | ||

5.2.2 Functions and Variables for Strings |

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Strings (quoted character sequences) are enclosed in double quote marks `"`

for input, and displayed with or without the quote marks, depending on the
global variable `stringdisp`

.

Strings may contain any characters, including embedded tab, newline, and
carriage return characters. The sequence `\"`

is recognized as a literal
double quote, and `\\`

as a literal backslash. When backslash appears at
the end of a line, the backslash and the line termination (either newline or
carriage return and newline) are ignored, so that the string continues with the
next line. No other special combinations of backslash with another character
are recognized; when backslash appears before any character other than `"`

,
`\`

, or a line termination, the backslash is ignored. There is no way to
represent a special character (such as tab, newline, or carriage return)
except by embedding the literal character in the string.

There is no character type in Maxima; a single character is represented as a one-character string.

The `stringproc`

add-on package contains many functions for working with
strings.

Examples:

(%i1) s_1 : "This is a string."; (%o1) This is a string. (%i2) s_2 : "Embedded \"double quotes\" and backslash \\ characters."; (%o2) Embedded "double quotes" and backslash \ characters. (%i3) s_3 : "Embedded line termination (%o3) Embedded line termination in this string. (%i4) in this string."; (%o4) Ignore the line termination characters in this string. (%i5) s_4 : "Ignore the \ (%o5) false (%i6) line termination \ (%o6) This is a string. (%i7) characters in \ (%o7) true (%i8) this string."; (%o8) "This is a string." (%i9) stringdisp : false;

Categories: Syntax

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__Function:__**concat***(*`arg_1`,`arg_2`, …)Concatenates its arguments. The arguments must evaluate to atoms. The return value is a symbol if the first argument is a symbol and a string otherwise.

`concat`

evaluates its arguments. The single quote`'`

prevents evaluation.See also

`sconcat`

and`eval_string`

.(%i1) y: 7$ (%i2) z: 88$ (%i3) concat (y, z/2); (%o3) 744 (%i4) concat ('y, z/2); (%o4) y44

A symbol constructed by

`concat`

may be assigned a value and appear in expressions. The`::`

(double colon) assignment operator evaluates its left-hand side.(%i5) a: concat ('y, z/2); (%o5) y44 (%i6) a:: 123; (%o6) 123 (%i7) y44; (%o7) 123 (%i8) b^a; y44 (%o8) b (%i9) %, numer; 123 (%o9) b

Note that although

`concat (1, 2)`

looks like a number, it is a string.(%i10) concat (1, 2) + 3; (%o10) 12 + 3

Categories: Expressions · Strings

__Function:__**sconcat***(*`arg_1`,`arg_2`, …)Concatenates its arguments into a string. Unlike

`concat`

, the arguments do*not*need to be atoms.See also

`concat`

and`eval_string`

.(%i1) sconcat ("xx[", 3, "]:", expand ((x+y)^3)); (%o1) xx[3]:y^3+3*x*y^2+3*x^2*y+x^3

Categories: Expressions · Strings

__Function:__**string***(*`expr`)Converts

`expr`

to Maxima's linear notation just as if it had been typed in.The return value of

`string`

is a string, and thus it cannot be used in a computation.Categories: Strings

__Option variable:__**stringdisp**Default value:

`false`

When

`stringdisp`

is`true`

, strings are displayed enclosed in double quote marks. Otherwise, quote marks are not displayed.`stringdisp`

is always`true`

when displaying a function definition.Examples:

(%i1) stringdisp: false$ (%i2) "This is an example string."; (%o2) This is an example string. (%i3) foo () := print ("This is a string in a function definition."); (%o3) foo() := print("This is a string in a function definition.") (%i4) stringdisp: true$ (%i5) "This is an example string."; (%o5) "This is an example string."

Categories: Display flags and variables

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5.3.1 Functions and Variables for Constants |

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__Constant:__**%e**`%e`

represents the base of the natural logarithm, also known as Euler's number. The numeric value of`%e`

is the double-precision floating-point value 2.718281828459045d0.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**%i**`%i`

represents the imaginary unit,*sqrt(- 1)*.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**false**`false`

represents the Boolean constant of the same name. Maxima implements`false`

by the value`NIL`

in Lisp.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**%gamma**The Euler-Mascheroni constant, 0.5772156649015329 ....

Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**ind**`ind`

represents a bounded, indefinite result.See also

`limit`

.Example:

(%i1) limit (sin(1/x), x, 0); (%o1) ind

Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**inf**`inf`

represents real positive infinity.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**infinity**`infinity`

represents complex infinity.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**minf**`minf`

represents real minus (i.e., negative) infinity.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**%phi**`%phi`

represents the so-called*golden mean*,*(1 + sqrt(5))/2*. The numeric value of`%phi`

is the double-precision floating-point value 1.618033988749895d0.`fibtophi`

expresses Fibonacci numbers`fib(n)`

in terms of`%phi`

.By default, Maxima does not know the algebraic properties of

`%phi`

. After evaluating`tellrat(%phi^2 - %phi - 1)`

and`algebraic: true`

,`ratsimp`

can simplify some expressions containing`%phi`

.Examples:

`fibtophi`

expresses Fibonacci numbers`fib(n)`

in terms of`%phi`

.(%i1) fibtophi (fib (n)); n n %phi - (1 - %phi) (%o1) ------------------- 2 %phi - 1 (%i2) fib (n-1) + fib (n) - fib (n+1); (%o2) - fib(n + 1) + fib(n) + fib(n - 1) (%i3) fibtophi (%); n + 1 n + 1 n n %phi - (1 - %phi) %phi - (1 - %phi) (%o3) - --------------------------- + ------------------- 2 %phi - 1 2 %phi - 1 n - 1 n - 1 %phi - (1 - %phi) + --------------------------- 2 %phi - 1 (%i4) ratsimp (%); (%o4) 0

By default, Maxima does not know the algebraic properties of

`%phi`

. After evaluating`tellrat (%phi^2 - %phi - 1)`

and`algebraic: true`

,`ratsimp`

can simplify some expressions containing`%phi`

.(%i1) e : expand ((%phi^2 - %phi - 1) * (A + 1)); 2 2 (%o1) %phi A - %phi A - A + %phi - %phi - 1 (%i2) ratsimp (e); 2 2 (%o2) (%phi - %phi - 1) A + %phi - %phi - 1 (%i3) tellrat (%phi^2 - %phi - 1); 2 (%o3) [%phi - %phi - 1] (%i4) algebraic : true; (%o4) true (%i5) ratsimp (e); (%o5) 0

Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**%pi**`%pi`

represents the ratio of the perimeter of a circle to its diameter. The numeric value of`%pi`

is the double-precision floating-point value 3.141592653589793d0.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**true**`true`

represents the Boolean constant of the same name. Maxima implements`true`

by the value`T`

in Lisp.Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**und**`und`

represents an undefined result.See also

`limit`

.Example:

(%i1) limit (x*sin(x), x, inf); (%o1) und

Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**zeroa**`zeroa`

represents an infinitesimal above zero.`zeroa`

can be used in expressions.`limit`

simplifies expressions which contain infinitesimals.Example:

`limit`

simplifies expressions which contain infinitesimals:(%i1) limit(zeroa); (%o1) 0 (%i2) limit(x+zeroa); (%o2) x

Categories: Constants

__Constant:__**zerob**`zerob`

represents an infinitesimal below zero.`zerob`

can be used in expressions.`limit`

simplifies expressions which contain infinitesimals.Categories: Constants

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5.4.1 Introduction to Lists | ||

5.4.2 Functions and Variables for Lists | ||

5.4.3 Performance considerations for Lists |

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Lists are the basic building block for Maxima and Lisp. All data types other than arrays, hash tables and numbers are represented as Lisp lists, These Lisp lists have the form

((MPLUS) $A 2)

to indicate an expression `a+2`

. At Maxima level one would see
the infix notation `a+2`

. Maxima also has lists which are printed
as

[1, 2, 7, x+y]

for a list with 4 elements. Internally this corresponds to a Lisp list of the form

((MLIST) 1 2 7 ((MPLUS) $X $Y))

The flag which denotes the type field of the Maxima expression is a list itself, since after it has been through the simplifier the list would become

((MLIST SIMP) 1 2 7 ((MPLUS SIMP) $X $Y))

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__Operator:__**[**__Operator:__**]**`[`

and`]`

mark the beginning and end, respectively, of a list.`[`

and`]`

also enclose the subscripts of a list, array, hash array, or array function. Note that other than for arrays accessing the`n`

th element of a list may need an amount of time that is roughly proportional to`n`

, See section Performance considerations for Lists.Examples:

(%i1) x: [a, b, c]; (%o1) [a, b, c] (%i2) x[3]; (%o2) c (%i3) array (y, fixnum, 3); (%o3) y (%i4) y[2]: %pi; (%o4) %pi (%i5) y[2]; (%o5) %pi (%i6) z['foo]: 'bar; (%o6) bar (%i7) z['foo]; (%o7) bar (%i8) g[k] := 1/(k^2+1); 1 (%o8) g := ------ k 2 k + 1 (%i9) g[10]; 1 (%o9) --- 101

__Function:__**append***(*`list_1`, …,`list_n`)Returns a single list of the elements of

`list_1`followed by the elements of`list_2`, …`append`

also works on general expressions, e.g.`append (f(a,b), f(c,d,e));`

yields`f(a,b,c,d,e)`

.See also

`addrow`

,`addcol`

and`join`

.Do

`example(append);`

for an example.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**assoc**

`assoc`(`key`,`list`,`default`)

`assoc`(`key`,`list`)This function searches for

`key`in the left hand side of the input`list`. The`list`argument should be a list, each of whose elements is an expression with exactly two parts. Most usually, the elements of`list`are themselves lists, each with two elements.The

`assoc`

function iterates along`list`, checking the first part of each element for equality with`key`. If an element is found where the comparison is true,`assoc`

returns the second part of that element. If there is no such element in the list,`assoc`

returns either`false`

or`default`, if given.For example, in the expression

`assoc (y, [[x,1], [y,2], [z,3]])`

, the`assoc`

function searches for`x`

in the left hand side of the list`[[y,1],[x,2]]`

and finds it at the second term, returning`2`

. In`assoc (z, [[x,1], [z,2], [z,3]])`

, the search stops at the first term starting with`z`

and returns`2`

. In`assoc(x, [[y,1]])`

, there is no matching element, so`assoc`

returns`false`

.(%i1) assoc (y, [[x,1], [y,2],[z,3]]); (%o1) 2 (%i2) assoc (z, [[x,1], [z,2], [z,3]]); (%o2) 2 (%i3) assoc (x, [[y,1]]); (%o3) false

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**cons**

`cons`(`expr`,`list`)

`cons`(`expr_1`,`expr_2`)`cons (`

returns a new list constructed of the element`expr`,`list`)`expr`as its first element, followed by the elements of`list`. This is analogous to the Lisp language construction operation "cons".The Maxima function

`cons`

can also be used where the second argument is other than a list and this might be useful. In this case,`cons (`

returns an expression with same operator as`expr_1`,`expr_2`)`expr_2`but with argument`cons(expr_1, args(expr_2))`

. Examples:(%i1) cons(a,[b,c,d]); (%o1) [a, b, c, d] (%i2) cons(a,f(b,c,d)); (%o2) f(a, b, c, d)

In general,

`cons`

applied to a nonlist doesn't make sense. For instance,`cons(a,b^c)`

results in an illegal expression, since '^' cannot take three arguments.When

`inflag`

is true,`cons`

operates on the internal structure of an expression, otherwise`cons`

operates on the displayed form. Especially when`inflag`

is true,`cons`

applied to a nonlist sometimes gives a surprising result; for example(%i1) cons(a,-a), inflag : true; 2 (%o1) - a (%i2) cons(a,-a), inflag : false; (%o2) 0

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**copylist***(*`list`)Returns a copy of the list

`list`.Categories: Lists

__Function:__**create_list***(*`form`,`x_1`,`list_1`, …,`x_n`,`list_n`)Create a list by evaluating

`form`with`x_1`bound to each element of`list_1`, and for each such binding bind`x_2`to each element of`list_2`, … The number of elements in the result will be the product of the number of elements in each list. Each variable`x_i`must actually be a symbol - it will not be evaluated. The list arguments will be evaluated once at the beginning of the iteration.(%i1) create_list (x^i, i, [1, 3, 7]); 3 7 (%o1) [x, x , x ]

With a double iteration:

(%i1) create_list ([i, j], i, [a, b], j, [e, f, h]); (%o1) [[a, e], [a, f], [a, h], [b, e], [b, f], [b, h]]

Instead of

`list_i`two args may be supplied each of which should evaluate to a number. These will be the inclusive lower and upper bounds for the iteration.(%i1) create_list ([i, j], i, [1, 2, 3], j, 1, i); (%o1) [[1, 1], [2, 1], [2, 2], [3, 1], [3, 2], [3, 3]]

Note that the limits or list for the

`j`

variable can depend on the current value of`i`

.Categories: Lists

__Function:__**delete**

`delete`(`expr_1`,`expr_2`)

`delete`(`expr_1`,`expr_2`,`n`)`delete(`

removes from`expr_1`,`expr_2`)`expr_2`any arguments of its top-level operator which are the same (as determined by "=") as`expr_1`. Note that "=" tests for formal equality, not equivalence. Note also that arguments of subexpressions are not affected.`expr_1`may be an atom or a non-atomic expression.`expr_2`may be any non-atomic expression.`delete`

returns a new expression; it does not modify`expr_2`.`delete(`

removes from`expr_1`,`expr_2`,`n`)`expr_2`the first`n`arguments of the top-level operator which are the same as`expr_1`. If there are fewer than`n`such arguments, then all such arguments are removed.Examples:

Removing elements from a list.

(%i1) delete (y, [w, x, y, z, z, y, x, w]); (%o1) [w, x, z, z, x, w]

Removing terms from a sum.

(%i1) delete (sin(x), x + sin(x) + y); (%o1) y + x

Removing factors from a product.

(%i1) delete (u - x, (u - w)*(u - x)*(u - y)*(u - z)); (%o1) (u - w) (u - y) (u - z)

Removing arguments from an arbitrary expression.

(%i1) delete (a, foo (a, b, c, d, a)); (%o1) foo(b, c, d)

Limit the number of removed arguments.

(%i1) delete (a, foo (a, b, a, c, d, a), 2); (%o1) foo(b, c, d, a)

Whether arguments are the same as

`expr_1`is determined by "=". Arguments which are`equal`

but not "=" are not removed.(%i1) [is (equal (0, 0)), is (equal (0, 0.0)), is (equal (0, 0b0))]; (%o1) [true, true, true] (%i2) [is (0 = 0), is (0 = 0.0), is (0 = 0b0)]; (%o2) [true, false, false] (%i3) delete (0, [0, 0.0, 0b0]); (%o3) [0.0, 0.0b0] (%i4) is (equal ((x + y)*(x - y), x^2 - y^2)); (%o4) true (%i5) is ((x + y)*(x - y) = x^2 - y^2); (%o5) false (%i6) delete ((x + y)*(x - y), [(x + y)*(x - y), x^2 - y^2]); 2 2 (%o6) [x - y ]

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**eighth***(*`expr`)Returns the 8'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**endcons**

`endcons`(`expr`,`list`)

`endcons`(`expr_1`,`expr_2`)`endcons (`

returns a new list constructed of the elements of`expr`,`list`)`list`followed by`expr`. The Maxima function`endcons`

can also be used where the second argument is other than a list and this might be useful. In this case,`endcons (`

returns an expression with same operator as`expr_1`,`expr_2`)`expr_2`but with argument`endcons(expr_1, args(expr_2))`

. Examples:(%i1) endcons(a,[b,c,d]); (%o1) [b, c, d, a] (%i2) endcons(a,f(b,c,d)); (%o2) f(b, c, d, a)

In general,

`endcons`

applied to a nonlist doesn't make sense. For instance,`endcons(a,b^c)`

results in an illegal expression, since '^' cannot take three arguments.When

`inflag`

is true,`endcons`

operates on the internal structure of an expression, otherwise`endcons`

operates on the displayed form. Especially when`inflag`

is true,`endcons`

applied to a nonlist sometimes gives a surprising result; for example(%i1) endcons(a,-a), inflag : true; 2 (%o1) - a (%i2) endcons(a,-a), inflag : false; (%o2) 0

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**fifth***(*`expr`)Returns the 5'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**first***(*`expr`)Returns the first part of

`expr`which may result in the first element of a list, the first row of a matrix, the first term of a sum, etc.:(%i1) matrix([1,2],[3,4]); [ 1 2 ] (%o1) [ ] [ 3 4 ] (%i2) first(%); (%o2) [1,2] (%i3) first(%); (%o3) 1 (%i4) first(a*b/c+d+e/x); a b (%o4) --- c (%i5) first(a=b/c+d+e/x); (%o5) a

Note that

`first`

and its related functions,`rest`

and`last`

, work on the form of`expr`which is displayed not the form which is typed on input. If the variable`inflag`

is set to`true`

however, these functions will look at the internal form of`expr`. One reason why this may make a difference is that the simplifier re-orders expressions:(%i1) x+y; (%o1) y+1 (%i2) first(x+y),inflag : true; (%o2) x (%i3) first(x+y),inflag : false; (%o3) y

The functions

`second`

…`tenth`

yield the second through the tenth part of their input argument.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**firstn***(*`expr`,`count`)Returns the first

`count`arguments of`expr`, if`expr`has at least`count`arguments. Returns`expr`if`expr`has less than`count`arguments.`expr`may be any nonatomic expression. When`expr`is something other than a list,`firstn`

returns an expression which has the same operator as`expr`.`count`must be a nonnegative integer.`firstn`

honors the global flag`inflag`

, which governs whether the internal form of an expression is processed (when`inflag`

is true) or the displayed form (when`inflag`

is false).Note that

`firstn(`

, which returns a nonatomic expression containing the first argument, is not the same as`expr`, 1)`first(`

, which returns the first argument by itself.`expr`)Examples:

`firstn`

returns the first`count`elements of`expr`, if`expr`has at least`count`elements.(%i1) mylist : [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)]; (%o1) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)] (%i2) firstn (mylist, 0); (%o2) [] (%i3) firstn (mylist, 1); (%o3) [1] (%i4) firstn (mylist, 2); (%o4) [1, a] (%i5) firstn (mylist, 7); (%o5) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y]

`firstn`

returns`expr`if`expr`has less than`count`elements.(%i1) mylist : [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)]; (%o1) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)] (%i2) firstn (mylist, 100); (%o2) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)]

`expr`may be any nonatomic expression.(%i1) myfoo : foo(1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)); (%o1) foo(1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)) (%i2) firstn (myfoo, 4); (%o2) foo(1, a, 2, b) (%i3) mybar : bar[m, n](1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)); (%o3) bar (1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)) m, n (%i4) firstn (mybar, 4); (%o4) bar (1, a, 2, b) m, n (%i5) mymatrix : genmatrix (lambda ([i, j], 10*i + j), 10, 4) $ (%i6) firstn (mymatrix, 3); [ 11 12 13 14 ] [ ] (%o6) [ 21 22 23 24 ] [ ] [ 31 32 33 34 ]

`firstn`

honors the global flag`inflag`

.(%i1) myexpr : a + b + c + d + e; (%o1) e + d + c + b + a (%i2) firstn (myexpr, 3), inflag=true; (%o2) c + b + a (%i3) firstn (myexpr, 3), inflag=false; (%o3) e + d + c

Note that

`firstn(`

is not the same as`expr`, 1)`first(`

.`expr`)(%i1) firstn ([w, x, y, z], 1); (%o1) [w] (%i2) first ([w, x, y, z]); (%o2) w

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**fourth***(*`expr`)Returns the 4'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**join***(*`l`,`m`)Creates a new list containing the elements of lists

`l`and`m`, interspersed. The result has elements`[`

. The lists`l`[1],`m`[1],`l`[2],`m`[2], ...]`l`and`m`may contain any type of elements.If the lists are different lengths,

`join`

ignores elements of the longer list.Maxima complains if

`l`or`m`is not a list.See also

`append`

.Examples:

(%i1) L1: [a, sin(b), c!, d - 1]; (%o1) [a, sin(b), c!, d - 1] (%i2) join (L1, [1, 2, 3, 4]); (%o2) [a, 1, sin(b), 2, c!, 3, d - 1, 4] (%i3) join (L1, [aa, bb, cc, dd, ee, ff]); (%o3) [a, aa, sin(b), bb, c!, cc, d - 1, dd]

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**last***(*`expr`)Returns the last part (term, row, element, etc.) of the

`expr`.See also

`lastn`

.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**lastn***(*`expr`,`count`)Returns the last

`count`arguments of`expr`, if`expr`has at least`count`arguments. Returns`expr`if`expr`has less than`count`arguments.`expr`may be any nonatomic expression. When`expr`is something other than a list,`lastn`

returns an expression which has the same operator as`expr`.`count`must be a nonnegative integer.`lastn`

honors the global flag`inflag`

, which governs whether the internal form of an expression is processed (when`inflag`

is true) or the displayed form (when`inflag`

is false).Note that

`lastn(`

, which returns a nonatomic expression containing the last argument, is not the same as`expr`, 1)`last(`

, which returns the last argument by itself.`expr`)Examples:

`lastn`

returns the last`count`elements of`expr`, if`expr`has at least`count`elements.(%i1) mylist : [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)]; (%o1) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)] (%i2) lastn (mylist, 0); (%o2) [] (%i3) lastn (mylist, 1); (%o3) [2 z + sin(u)] (%i4) lastn (mylist, 2); (%o4) [4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)] (%i5) lastn (mylist, 7); (%o5) [a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)]

`lastn`

returns`expr`if`expr`has less than`count`elements.(%i1) mylist : [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)]; (%o1) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)] (%i2) lastn (mylist, 100); (%o2) [1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)]

`expr`may be any nonatomic expression.(%i1) myfoo : foo(1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)); (%o1) foo(1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)) (%i2) lastn (myfoo, 4); (%o2) foo(3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)) (%i3) mybar : bar[m, n](1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2*z + sin(u)); (%o3) bar (1, a, 2, b, 3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)) m, n (%i4) lastn (mybar, 4); (%o4) bar (3, x, 4 - y, 2 z + sin(u)) m, n (%i5) mymatrix : genmatrix (lambda ([i, j], 10*i + j), 10, 4) $ (%i6) lastn (mymatrix, 3); [ 81 82 83 84 ] [ ] (%o6) [ 91 92 93 94 ] [ ] [ 101 102 103 104 ]

`lastn`

honors the global flag`inflag`

.(%i1) myexpr : a + b + c + d + e; (%o1) e + d + c + b + a (%i2) lastn (myexpr, 3), inflag=true; (%o2) e + d + c (%i3) lastn (myexpr, 3), inflag=false; (%o3) c + b + a

Note that

`lastn(`

is not the same as`expr`, 1)`last(`

.`expr`)(%i1) lastn ([w, x, y, z], 1); (%o1) [z] (%i2) last ([w, x, y, z]); (%o2) z

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**length***(*`expr`)Returns (by default) the number of parts in the external (displayed) form of

`expr`. For lists this is the number of elements, for matrices it is the number of rows, and for sums it is the number of terms (see`dispform`

).The

`length`

command is affected by the`inflag`

switch. So, e.g.`length(a/(b*c));`

gives 2 if`inflag`

is`false`

(Assuming`exptdispflag`

is`true`

), but 3 if`inflag`

is`true`

(the internal representation is essentially`a*b^-1*c^-1`

).Determining a list's length typically needs an amount of time proportional to the number of elements in the list. If the length of a list is used inside a loop it therefore might drastically increase the performance if the length is calculated outside the loop instead.

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Option variable:__**listarith**Default value:

`true`

If

`false`

causes any arithmetic operations with lists to be suppressed; when`true`

, list-matrix operations are contagious causing lists to be converted to matrices yielding a result which is always a matrix. However, list-list operations should return lists.Categories: Lists · Global flags

__Function:__**listp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a list else`false`

.Categories: Lists · Predicate functions

__Function:__**lreduce**

`lreduce`(`F`,`s`)

`lreduce`(`F`,`s`,`s_0`)Extends the binary function

`F`to an n-ary function by composition, where`s`is a list.`lreduce(`

returns`F`,`s`)`F(... F(F(s_1, s_2), s_3), ... s_n)`

. When the optional argument`s_0`is present, the result is equivalent to`lreduce(`

.`F`, cons(`s_0`,`s`))The function

`F`is first applied to the*leftmost*list elements, thus the name "lreduce".See also

`rreduce`

,`xreduce`

, and`tree_reduce`

.Examples:

`lreduce`

without the optional argument.(%i1) lreduce (f, [1, 2, 3]); (%o1) f(f(1, 2), 3) (%i2) lreduce (f, [1, 2, 3, 4]); (%o2) f(f(f(1, 2), 3), 4)

`lreduce`

with the optional argument.(%i1) lreduce (f, [1, 2, 3], 4); (%o1) f(f(f(4, 1), 2), 3)

`lreduce`

applied to built-in binary operators.`/`

is the division operator.(%i1) lreduce ("^", args ({a, b, c, d})); b c d (%o1) ((a ) ) (%i2) lreduce ("/", args ({a, b, c, d})); a (%o2) ----- b c d

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**makelist**

`makelist`()

`makelist`(`expr`,`n`)

`makelist`(`expr`,`i`,`i_max`)

`makelist`(`expr`,`i`,`i_0`,`i_max`)

`makelist`(`expr`,`i`,`i_0`,`i_max`,`step`)

`makelist`(`expr`,`x`,`list`)The first form,

`makelist ()`

, creates an empty list. The second form,`makelist (`

, creates a list with`expr`)`expr`as its single element.`makelist (`

creates a list of`expr`,`n`)`n`elements generated from`expr`.The most general form,

`makelist (`

, returns the list of elements obtained when`expr`,`i`,`i_0`,`i_max`,`step`)`ev (`

is applied to the elements`expr`,`i`=`j`)`j`of the sequence:`i_0`,`i_0`+`step`,`i_0`+ 2*`step`, ..., with`|j|`less than or equal to`|i_max|`.The increment

`step`can be a number (positive or negative) or an expression. If it is omitted, the default value 1 will be used. If both`i_0`and`step`are omitted, they will both have a default value of 1.`makelist (`

returns a list, the`expr`,`x`,`list`)`j`

'th element of which is equal to`ev (`

for`expr`,`x`=`list`[j])`j`

equal to 1 through`length (`

.`list`)Examples:

(%i1) makelist (concat (x,i), i, 6); (%o1) [x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6] (%i2) makelist (x=y, y, [a, b, c]); (%o2) [x = a, x = b, x = c] (%i3) makelist (x^2, x, 3, 2*%pi, 2); (%o3) [9, 25] (%i4) makelist (random(6), 4); (%o4) [2, 0, 2, 5] (%i5) flatten (makelist (makelist (i^2, 3), i, 4)); (%o5) [1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 4, 9, 9, 9, 16, 16, 16] (%i6) flatten (makelist (makelist (i^2, i, 3), 4)); (%o6) [1, 4, 9, 1, 4, 9, 1, 4, 9, 1, 4, 9]

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**member***(*`expr_1`,`expr_2`)Returns

`true`

if`is(`

for some element`expr_1`=`a`)`a`in`args(`

, otherwise returns`expr_2`)`false`

.`expr_2`

is typically a list, in which case`args(`

and`expr_2`) =`expr_2``is(`

for some element`expr_1`=`a`)`a`in`expr_2`

is the test.`member`

does not inspect parts of the arguments of`expr_2`

, so it may return`false`

even if`expr_1`

is a part of some argument of`expr_2`

.See also

`elementp`

.Examples:

(%i1) member (8, [8, 8.0, 8b0]); (%o1) true (%i2) member (8, [8.0, 8b0]); (%o2) false (%i3) member (b, [a, b, c]); (%o3) true (%i4) member (b, [[a, b], [b, c]]); (%o4) false (%i5) member ([b, c], [[a, b], [b, c]]); (%o5) true (%i6) F (1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8); 1 1 1 (%o6) F(1, -, -, -) 2 4 8 (%i7) member (1/8, %); (%o7) true (%i8) member ("ab", ["aa", "ab", sin(1), a + b]); (%o8) true

Categories: Lists · Expressions · Predicate functions

__Function:__**ninth***(*`expr`)Returns the 9'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**pop***(*`list`)`pop`

removes and returns the first element from the list`list`. The argument`list`must be a mapatom that is bound to a nonempty list. If the argument`list`is not bound to a nonempty list, Maxima signals an error. For examples, see`push`

.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**push***(*`item`,`list`)`push`

prepends the item`item`to the list`list`and returns a copy of the new list. The second argument`list`must be a mapatom that is bound to a list. The first argument`item`can be any Maxima symbol or expression. If the argument`list`is not bound to a list, Maxima signals an error.To remove the first item from a list, see

`pop`

.Examples:

(%i1) ll: []; (%o1) [] (%i2) push (x, ll); (%o2) [x] (%i3) push (x^2+y, ll); 2 (%o3) [y + x , x] (%i4) a: push ("string", ll); 2 (%o4) [string, y + x , x] (%i5) pop (ll); (%o5) string (%i6) pop (ll); 2 (%o6) y + x (%i7) pop (ll); (%o7) x (%i8) ll; (%o8) [] (%i9) a; 2 (%o9) [string, y + x , x]

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**rest**

`rest`(`expr`,`n`)

`rest`(`expr`)Returns

`expr`with its first`n`elements removed if`n`is positive and its last`-`

elements removed if`n``n`is negative. If`n`is 1 it may be omitted. The first argument`expr`may be a list, matrix, or other expression. When`expr`is an atom,`rest`

signals an error; when`expr`is an empty list and`partswitch`

is false,`rest`

signals an error. When`expr`is an empty list and`partswitch`

is true,`rest`

returns`end`

.Applying

`rest`

to expression such as`f(a,b,c)`

returns`f(b,c)`

. In general, applying`rest`

to an nonlist doesn't make sense. For example, because '^' requires two arguments,`rest(a^b)`

results in an error message. The functions`args`

and`op`

may be useful as well, since`args(a^b)`

returns`[a,b]`

and`op(a^b)`

returns ^.(%i1) rest(a+b+c); (%o1) b+a (%i2) rest(a+b+c,2); (%o2) a (%i3) rest(a+b+c,-2); (%o3) c

Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**reverse***(*`list`)Reverses the order of the members of the

`list`(not the members themselves).`reverse`

also works on general expressions, e.g.`reverse(a=b);`

gives`b=a`

.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**rreduce**

`rreduce`(`F`,`s`)

`rreduce`(`F`,`s`,`s_{n + 1}`)Extends the binary function

`F`to an n-ary function by composition, where`s`is a list.`rreduce(`

returns`F`,`s`)`F(s_1, ... F(s_{n - 2}, F(s_{n - 1}, s_n)))`

. When the optional argument`s_{n + 1}`is present, the result is equivalent to`rreduce(`

.`F`, endcons(`s_{n + 1}`,`s`))The function

`F`is first applied to the*rightmost*list elements, thus the name "rreduce".See also

`lreduce`

,`tree_reduce`

, and`xreduce`

.Examples:

`rreduce`

without the optional argument.(%i1) rreduce (f, [1, 2, 3]); (%o1) f(1, f(2, 3)) (%i2) rreduce (f, [1, 2, 3, 4]); (%o2) f(1, f(2, f(3, 4)))

`rreduce`

with the optional argument.(%i1) rreduce (f, [1, 2, 3], 4); (%o1) f(1, f(2, f(3, 4)))

`rreduce`

applied to built-in binary operators.`/`

is the division operator.(%i1) rreduce ("^", args ({a, b, c, d})); d c b (%o1) a (%i2) rreduce ("/", args ({a, b, c, d})); a c (%o2) --- b d

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**second***(*`expr`)Returns the 2'nd item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**seventh***(*`expr`)Returns the 7'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**sixth***(*`expr`)Returns the 6'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**sort**

`sort`(`L`,`P`)

`sort`(`L`)`sort(`

sorts a list`L`,`P`)`L`according to a predicate`P`

of two arguments which defines a strict weak order on the elements of`L`. If

is`P`(a, b)`true`

, then`a`

appears before`b`

in the result. If neither

nor`P`(a, b)

are`P`(b, a)`true`

, then`a`

and`b`

are equivalent, and appear in the result in the same order as in the input. That is,`sort`

is a stable sort.If

and`P`(a, b)

are both`P`(b, a)`true`

for some elements of`L`, then`P`is not a valid sort predicate, and the result is undefined. If

is something other than`P`(a, b)`true`

or`false`

,`sort`

signals an error.The predicate may be specified as the name of a function or binary infix operator, or as a

`lambda`

expression. If specified as the name of an operator, the name must be enclosed in double quotes.The sorted list is returned as a new object; the argument

`L`is not modified.`sort(`

is equivalent to`L`)`sort(`

.`L`, orderlessp)The default sorting order is ascending, as determined by

`orderlessp`

. The predicate`ordergreatp`

sorts a list in descending order.All Maxima atoms and expressions are comparable under

`orderlessp`

and`ordergreatp`

.Operators

`<`

and`>`

order numbers, constants, and constant expressions by magnitude. Note that`orderlessp`

and`ordergreatp`

do not order numbers, constants, and constant expressions by magnitude.`ordermagnitudep`

orders numbers, constants, and constant expressions the same as`<`

, and all other elements the same as`orderlessp`

.Examples:

`sort`

sorts a list according to a predicate of two arguments which defines a strict weak order on the elements of the list.(%i1) sort ([1, a, b, 2, 3, c], 'orderlessp); (%o1) [1, 2, 3, a, b, c] (%i2) sort ([1, a, b, 2, 3, c], 'ordergreatp); (%o2) [c, b, a, 3, 2, 1]

The predicate may be specified as the name of a function or binary infix operator, or as a

`lambda`

expression. If specified as the name of an operator, the name must be enclosed in double quotes.(%i1) L : [[1, x], [3, y], [4, w], [2, z]]; (%o1) [[1, x], [3, y], [4, w], [2, z]] (%i2) foo (a, b) := a[1] > b[1]; (%o2) foo(a, b) := a > b 1 1 (%i3) sort (L, 'foo); (%o3) [[4, w], [3, y], [2, z], [1, x]] (%i4) infix (">>"); (%o4) >> (%i5) a >> b := a[1] > b[1]; (%o5) (a >> b) := a > b 1 1 (%i6) sort (L, ">>"); (%o6) [[4, w], [3, y], [2, z], [1, x]] (%i7) sort (L, lambda ([a, b], a[1] > b[1])); (%o7) [[4, w], [3, y], [2, z], [1, x]]

`sort(`

is equivalent to`L`)`sort(`

.`L`, orderlessp)(%i1) L : [a, 2*b, -5, 7, 1 + %e, %pi]; (%o1) [a, 2 b, - 5, 7, %e + 1, %pi] (%i2) sort (L); (%o2) [- 5, 7, %e + 1, %pi, a, 2 b] (%i3) sort (L, 'orderlessp); (%o3) [- 5, 7, %e + 1, %pi, a, 2 b]

The default sorting order is ascending, as determined by

`orderlessp`

. The predicate`ordergreatp`

sorts a list in descending order.(%i1) L : [a, 2*b, -5, 7, 1 + %e, %pi]; (%o1) [a, 2 b, - 5, 7, %e + 1, %pi] (%i2) sort (L); (%o2) [- 5, 7, %e + 1, %pi, a, 2 b] (%i3) sort (L, 'ordergreatp); (%o3) [2 b, a, %pi, %e + 1, 7, - 5]

All Maxima atoms and expressions are comparable under

`orderlessp`

and`ordergreatp`

.(%i1) L : [11, -17, 29b0, 9*c, 7.55, foo(x, y), -5/2, b + a]; 5 (%o1) [11, - 17, 2.9b1, 9 c, 7.55, foo(x, y), - -, b + a] 2 (%i2) sort (L, orderlessp); 5 (%o2) [- 17, - -, 7.55, 11, 2.9b1, b + a, 9 c, foo(x, y)] 2 (%i3) sort (L, ordergreatp); 5 (%o3) [foo(x, y), 9 c, b + a, 2.9b1, 11, 7.55, - -, - 17] 2

Operators

`<`

and`>`

order numbers, constants, and constant expressions by magnitude. Note that`orderlessp`

and`ordergreatp`

do not order numbers, constants, and constant expressions by magnitude.(%i1) L : [%pi, 3, 4, %e, %gamma]; (%o1) [%pi, 3, 4, %e, %gamma] (%i2) sort (L, ">"); (%o2) [4, %pi, 3, %e, %gamma] (%i3) sort (L, ordergreatp); (%o3) [%pi, %gamma, %e, 4, 3]

`ordermagnitudep`

orders numbers, constants, and constant expressions the same as`<`

, and all other elements the same as`orderlessp`

.(%i1) L : [%i, 1+%i, 2*x, minf, inf, %e, sin(1), 0, 1, 2, 3, 1.0, 1.0b0]; (%o1) [%i, %i + 1, 2 x, minf, inf, %e, sin(1), 0, 1, 2, 3, 1.0, 1.0b0] (%i2) sort (L, ordermagnitudep); (%o2) [minf, 0, sin(1), 1, 1.0, 1.0b0, 2, %e, 3, inf, %i, %i + 1, 2 x] (%i3) sort (L, orderlessp); (%o3) [0, 1, 1.0, 2, 3, sin(1), 1.0b0, %e, %i, %i + 1, inf, minf, 2 x]

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**sublist***(*`list`,`p`)Returns the list of elements of

`list`for which the predicate`p`

returns`true`

.Example:

(%i1) L: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]; (%o1) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] (%i2) sublist (L, evenp); (%o2) [2, 4, 6]

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**sublist_indices***(*`L`,`P`)Returns the indices of the elements

`x`

of the list`L`for which the predicate`maybe(`

returns`P`(x))`true`

; this excludes`unknown`

as well as`false`

.`P`may be the name of a function or a lambda expression.`L`must be a literal list.Examples:

(%i1) sublist_indices ('[a, b, b, c, 1, 2, b, 3, b], lambda ([x], x='b)); (%o1) [2, 3, 7, 9] (%i2) sublist_indices ('[a, b, b, c, 1, 2, b, 3, b], symbolp); (%o2) [1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9] (%i3) sublist_indices ([1 > 0, 1 < 0, 2 < 1, 2 > 1, 2 > 0], identity); (%o3) [1, 4, 5] (%i4) assume (x < -1); (%o4) [x < - 1] (%i5) map (maybe, [x > 0, x < 0, x < -2]); (%o5) [false, true, unknown] (%i6) sublist_indices ([x > 0, x < 0, x < -2], identity); (%o6) [2]

Categories: Lists

__Function:__**tenth***(*`expr`)Returns the 10'th item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**third***(*`expr`)Returns the 3'rd item of expression or list

`expr`. See`first`

for more details.Categories: Lists · Expressions

__Function:__**tree_reduce**

`tree_reduce`(`F`,`s`)

`tree_reduce`(`F`,`s`,`s_0`)Extends the binary function

`F`to an n-ary function by composition, where`s`is a set or list.`tree_reduce`

is equivalent to the following: Apply`F`to successive pairs of elements to form a new list`[`

, carrying the final element unchanged if there are an odd number of elements. Then repeat until the list is reduced to a single element, which is the return value.`F`(`s_1`,`s_2`),`F`(`s_3`,`s_4`), ...]When the optional argument

`s_0`is present, the result is equivalent`tree_reduce(`

.`F`, cons(`s_0`,`s`))For addition of floating point numbers,

`tree_reduce`

may return a sum that has a smaller rounding error than either`rreduce`

or`lreduce`

.The elements of

`s`and the partial results may be arranged in a minimum-depth binary tree, thus the name "tree_reduce".Examples:

`tree_reduce`

applied to a list with an even number of elements.(%i1) tree_reduce (f, [a, b, c, d]); (%o1) f(f(a, b), f(c, d))

`tree_reduce`

applied to a list with an odd number of elements.(%i1) tree_reduce (f, [a, b, c, d, e]); (%o1) f(f(f(a, b), f(c, d)), e)

__Function:__**unique***(*`L`)Returns the unique elements of the list

`L`.When all the elements of

`L`are unique,`unique`

returns a shallow copy of`L`, not`L`itself.If

`L`is not a list,`unique`

returns`L`.Example:

(%i1) unique ([1, %pi, a + b, 2, 1, %e, %pi, a + b, [1]]); (%o1) [1, 2, %e, %pi, [1], b + a]

__Function:__**xreduce**

`xreduce`(`F`,`s`)

`xreduce`(`F`,`s`,`s_0`)Extends the function

`F`to an n-ary function by composition, or, if`F`is already n-ary, applies`F`to`s`. When`F`is not n-ary,`xreduce`

is the same as`lreduce`

. The argument`s`is a list.Functions known to be n-ary include addition

`+`

, multiplication`*`

,`and`

,`or`

,`max`

,`min`

, and`append`

. Functions may also be declared n-ary by`declare(`

. For these functions,`F`, nary)`xreduce`

is expected to be faster than either`rreduce`

or`lreduce`

.When the optional argument

`s_0`is present, the result is equivalent to`xreduce(`

.`s`, cons(`s_0`,`s`))Floating point addition is not exactly associative; be that as it may,

`xreduce`

applies Maxima's n-ary addition when`s`contains floating point numbers.Examples:

`xreduce`

applied to a function known to be n-ary.`F`

is called once, with all arguments.(%i1) declare (F, nary); (%o1) done (%i2) F ([L]) := L; (%o2) F([L]) := L (%i3) xreduce (F, [a, b, c, d, e]); (%o3) [a, b, c, d, e]

`xreduce`

applied to a function not known to be n-ary.`G`

is called several times, with two arguments each time.(%i1) G ([L]) := L; (%o1) G([L]) := L (%i2) xreduce (G, [a, b, c, d, e]); (%o2) [[[[a, b], c], d], e] (%i3) lreduce (G, [a, b, c, d, e]); (%o3) [[[[a, b], c], d], e]

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Lists provide efficient ways of appending and removing elements. They can be created without knowing their final dimensions. Lisp provides efficient means of copying and handling lists. Also nested lists do not need to be strictly rectangular. These advantages over declared arrays come with the drawback that the amount of time needed for accessing a random element within a list may be roughly proportional to the element's distance from its beginning. Efficient traversal of lists is still possible, though, by using the list as a stack or a fifo:

(%i1) l:[Test,1,2,3,4]; (%o1) [Test, 1, 2, 3, 4] (%i2) while l # [] do disp(pop(l)); Test 1 2 3 4 (%o2) done

Another even faster example would be:

(%i1) l:[Test,1,2,3,4]; (%o1) [Test, 1, 2, 3, 4] (%i2) for i in l do disp(pop(l)); Test 1 2 3 4 (%o2) done

Beginning traversal with the last element of a list is possible after
reversing the list using `reverse ()`

.
If the elements of a long list need to be processed in a different
order performance might be increased by converting the list into a
declared array first.

It is also to note that the ending condition of `for`

loops
is tested for every iteration which means that the result of a
`length`

should be cached if it is used in the ending
condition:

(%i1) l:makelist(i,i,1,100000)$ (%i2) lngth:length(l); (%o2) 100000 (%i3) x:1; (%o3) 1 (%i4) for i:1 thru lngth do x:x+1$ (%i5) x; (%o5) 100001

[ < ] | [ > ] | [ << ] | [ Up ] | [ >> ] | [Top] | [Contents] | [Index] | [ ? ] |

5.5.1 Functions and Variables for Arrays |

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__Function:__**array**

`array`(`name`,`dim_1`, …,`dim_n`)

`array`(`name`,`type`,`dim_1`, …,`dim_n`)

`array`([`name_1`, …,`name_m`],`dim_1`, …,`dim_n`)Creates an

*n*-dimensional array.*n*may be less than or equal to 5. The subscripts for the*i*'th dimension are the integers running from 0 to`dim_i`.`array (`

creates a general array.`name`,`dim_1`, ...,`dim_n`)`array (`

creates an array, with elements of a specified type.`name`,`type`,`dim_1`, ...,`dim_n`)`type`can be`fixnum`

for integers of limited size or`flonum`

for floating-point numbers.`array ([`

creates`name_1`, ...,`name_m`],`dim_1`, ...,`dim_n`)*m*arrays, all of the same dimensions.If the user assigns to a subscripted variable before declaring the corresponding array, an undeclared array is created. Undeclared arrays, otherwise known as hashed arrays (because hash coding is done on the subscripts), are more general than declared arrays. The user does not declare their maximum size, and they grow dynamically by hashing as more elements are assigned values. The subscripts of undeclared arrays need not even be numbers. However, unless an array is rather sparse, it is probably more efficient to declare it when possible than to leave it undeclared. The

`array`

function can be used to transform an undeclared array into a declared array.Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**arrayapply***(*`A`, [`i_1`, …,`i_n`])Evaluates

, where`A`[`i_1`, ...,`i_n`]`A`is an array and`i_1`, …,`i_n`are integers.This is reminiscent of

`apply`

, except the first argument is an array instead of a function.Categories: Expressions · Arrays

__Function:__**arrayinfo***(*`A`)Returns information about the array

`A`. The argument`A`may be a declared array, an undeclared (hashed) array, an array function, or a subscripted function.For declared arrays,

`arrayinfo`

returns a list comprising the atom`declared`

, the number of dimensions, and the size of each dimension. The elements of the array, both bound and unbound, are returned by`listarray`

.For undeclared arrays (hashed arrays),

`arrayinfo`

returns a list comprising the atom`hashed`

, the number of subscripts, and the subscripts of every element which has a value. The values are returned by`listarray`

.For array functions,

`arrayinfo`

returns a list comprising the atom`hashed`

, the number of subscripts, and any subscript values for which there are stored function values. The stored function values are returned by`listarray`

.For subscripted functions,

`arrayinfo`

returns a list comprising the atom`hashed`

, the number of subscripts, and any subscript values for which there are lambda expressions. The lambda expressions are returned by`listarray`

.See also

`listarray`

.Examples:

`arrayinfo`

and`listarray`

applied to a declared array.(%i1) array (aa, 2, 3); (%o1) aa (%i2) aa [2, 3] : %pi; (%o2) %pi (%i3) aa [1, 2] : %e; (%o3) %e (%i4) arrayinfo (aa); (%o4) [declared, 2, [2, 3]] (%i5) listarray (aa); (%o5) [#####, #####, #####, #####, #####, #####, %e, #####, #####, #####, #####, %pi]

`arrayinfo`

and`listarray`

applied to an undeclared (hashed) array.(%i1) bb [FOO] : (a + b)^2; 2 (%o1) (b + a) (%i2) bb [BAR] : (c - d)^3; 3 (%o2) (c - d) (%i3) arrayinfo (bb); (%o3) [hashed, 1, [BAR], [FOO]] (%i4) listarray (bb); 3 2 (%o4) [(c - d) , (b + a) ]

`arrayinfo`

and`listarray`

applied to an array function.(%i1) cc [x, y] := y / x; y (%o1) cc := - x, y x (%i2) cc [u, v]; v (%o2) - u (%i3) cc [4, z]; z (%o3) - 4 (%i4) arrayinfo (cc); (%o4) [hashed, 2, [4, z], [u, v]] (%i5) listarray (cc); z v (%o5) [-, -] 4 u

`arrayinfo`

and`listarray`

applied to a subscripted function.(%i1) dd [x] (y) := y ^ x; x (%o1) dd (y) := y x (%i2) dd [a + b]; b + a (%o2) lambda([y], y ) (%i3) dd [v - u]; v - u (%o3) lambda([y], y ) (%i4) arrayinfo (dd); (%o4) [hashed, 1, [b + a], [v - u]] (%i5) listarray (dd); b + a v - u (%o5) [lambda([y], y ), lambda([y], y )]

Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**arraymake***(*`A`, [`i_1`, …,`i_n`])Returns the expression

. The result is an unevaluated array reference.`A`[`i_1`, ...,`i_n`]`arraymake`

is reminiscent of`funmake`

, except the return value is an unevaluated array reference instead of an unevaluated function call.Examples:

(%i1) arraymake (A, [1]); (%o1) A 1 (%i2) arraymake (A, [k]); (%o2) A k (%i3) arraymake (A, [i, j, 3]); (%o3) A i, j, 3 (%i4) array (A, fixnum, 10); (%o4) A (%i5) fillarray (A, makelist (i^2, i, 1, 11)); (%o5) A (%i6) arraymake (A, [5]); (%o6) A 5 (%i7) ''%; (%o7) 36 (%i8) L : [a, b, c, d, e]; (%o8) [a, b, c, d, e] (%i9) arraymake ('L, [n]); (%o9) L n (%i10) ''%, n = 3; (%o10) c (%i11) A2 : make_array (fixnum, 10); (%o11) {Array: #(0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)} (%i12) fillarray (A2, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]); (%o12) {Array: #(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10)} (%i13) arraymake ('A2, [8]); (%o13) A2 8 (%i14) ''%; (%o14) 9

Categories: Expressions · Arrays

__System variable:__**arrays**Default value:

`[]`

`arrays`

is a list of arrays that have been allocated. These comprise arrays declared by`array`

, hashed arrays constructed by implicit definition (assigning something to an array element), and array functions defined by`:=`

and`define`

. Arrays defined by`make_array`

are not included.See also

`array`

,`arrayapply`

,`arrayinfo`

,`arraymake`

,`fillarray`

,`listarray`

, and`rearray`

.Examples:

(%i1) array (aa, 5, 7); (%o1) aa (%i2) bb [FOO] : (a + b)^2; 2 (%o2) (b + a) (%i3) cc [x] := x/100; x (%o3) cc := --- x 100 (%i4) dd : make_array ('any, 7); (%o4) {Array: #(NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL)} (%i5) arrays; (%o5) [aa, bb, cc]

Categories: Arrays · Global variables

__Function:__**arraysetapply***(*`A`, [`i_1`, …,`i_n`],`x`)Assigns

`x`to

, where`A`[`i_1`, ...,`i_n`]`A`is an array and`i_1`, …,`i_n`are integers.`arraysetapply`

evaluates its arguments.Categories: Expressions · Arrays

__Function:__**fillarray***(*`A`,`B`)Fills array

`A`from`B`, which is a list or an array.If a specific type was declared for

`A`when it was created, it can only be filled with elements of that same type; it is an error if an attempt is made to copy an element of a different type.If the dimensions of the arrays

`A`and`B`are different,`A`is filled in row-major order. If there are not enough elements in`B`the last element is used to fill out the rest of`A`. If there are too many, the remaining ones are ignored.`fillarray`

returns its first argument.Examples:

Create an array of 9 elements and fill it from a list.

(%i1) array (a1, fixnum, 8); (%o1) a1 (%i2) listarray (a1); (%o2) [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0] (%i3) fillarray (a1, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]); (%o3) a1 (%i4) listarray (a1); (%o4) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

When there are too few elements to fill the array, the last element is repeated. When there are too many elements, the extra elements are ignored.

(%i1) a2 : make_array (fixnum, 8); (%o1) {Array: #(0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)} (%i2) fillarray (a2, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]); (%o2) {Array: #(1 2 3 4 5 5 5 5)} (%i3) fillarray (a2, [4]); (%o3) {Array: #(4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4)} (%i4) fillarray (a2, makelist (i, i, 1, 100)); (%o4) {Array: #(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8)}

Multple-dimension arrays are filled in row-major order.

(%i1) a3 : make_array (fixnum, 2, 5); (%o1) {Array: #2A((0 0 0 0 0) (0 0 0 0 0))} (%i2) fillarray (a3, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]); (%o2) {Array: #2A((1 2 3 4 5) (6 7 8 9 10))} (%i3) a4 : make_array (fixnum, 5, 2); (%o3) {Array: #2A((0 0) (0 0) (0 0) (0 0) (0 0))} (%i4) fillarray (a4, a3); (%o4) {Array: #2A((1 2) (3 4) (5 6) (7 8) (9 10))}

Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**listarray***(*`A`)Returns a list of the elements of the array

`A`. The argument`A`may be a declared array, an undeclared (hashed) array, an array function, or a subscripted function.Elements are listed in row-major order. That is, elements are sorted according to the first index, then according to the second index, and so on. The sorting order of index values is the same as the order established by

`orderless`

.For undeclared arrays, array functions, and subscripted functions, the elements correspond to the index values returned by

`arrayinfo`

.Unbound elements of declared general arrays (that is, not

`fixnum`

and not`flonum`

) are returned as`#####`

. Unbound elements of declared`fixnum`

or`flonum`

arrays are returned as 0 or 0.0, respectively. Unbound elements of undeclared arrays, array functions, and subscripted functions are not returned.Examples:

`listarray`

and`arrayinfo`

applied to a declared array.(%i1) array (aa, 2, 3); (%o1) aa (%i2) aa [2, 3] : %pi; (%o2) %pi (%i3) aa [1, 2] : %e; (%o3) %e (%i4) listarray (aa); (%o4) [#####, #####, #####, #####, #####, #####, %e, #####, #####, #####, #####, %pi] (%i5) arrayinfo (aa); (%o5) [declared, 2, [2, 3]]

`listarray`

and`arrayinfo`

applied to an undeclared (hashed) array.(%i1) bb [FOO] : (a + b)^2; 2 (%o1) (b + a) (%i2) bb [BAR] : (c - d)^3; 3 (%o2) (c - d) (%i3) listarray (bb); 3 2 (%o3) [(c - d) , (b + a) ] (%i4) arrayinfo (bb); (%o4) [hashed, 1, [BAR], [FOO]]

`listarray`

and`arrayinfo`

applied to an array function.(%i1) cc [x, y] := y / x; y (%o1) cc := - x, y x (%i2) cc [u, v]; v (%o2) - u (%i3) cc [4, z]; z (%o3) - 4 (%i4) listarray (cc); z v (%o4) [-, -] 4 u (%i5) arrayinfo (cc); (%o5) [hashed, 2, [4, z], [u, v]]

`listarray`

and`arrayinfo`

applied to a subscripted function.(%i1) dd [x] (y) := y ^ x; x (%o1) dd (y) := y x (%i2) dd [a + b]; b + a (%o2) lambda([y], y ) (%i3) dd [v - u]; v - u (%o3) lambda([y], y ) (%i4) listarray (dd); b + a v - u (%o4) [lambda([y], y ), lambda([y], y )] (%i5) arrayinfo (dd); (%o5) [hashed, 1, [b + a], [v - u]]

Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**make_array***(*`type`,`dim_1`, …,`dim_n`)Creates and returns a Lisp array.

`type`may be`any`

,`flonum`

,`fixnum`

,`hashed`

or`functional`

. There are*n*indices, and the*i*'th index runs from 0 to.`dim_i`- 1The advantage of

`make_array`

over`array`

is that the return value doesn't have a name, and once a pointer to it goes away, it will also go away. For example, if`y: make_array (...)`

then`y`

points to an object which takes up space, but after`y: false`

,`y`

no longer points to that object, so the object can be garbage collected.Examples:

(%i1) A1 : make_array (fixnum, 10); (%o1) {Array: #(0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0)} (%i2) A1 [8] : 1729; (%o2) 1729 (%i3) A1; (%o3) {Array: #(0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1729 0)} (%i4) A2 : make_array (flonum, 10); (%o4) {Array: #(0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0)} (%i5) A2 [2] : 2.718281828; (%o5) 2.718281828 (%i6) A2; (%o6) {Array: #(0.0 0.0 2.718281828 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0)} (%i7) A3 : make_array (any, 10); (%o7) {Array: #(NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL)} (%i8) A3 [4] : x - y - z; (%o8) - z - y + x (%i9) A3; (%o9) {Array: #(NIL NIL NIL NIL ((MPLUS SIMP) $X ((MTIMES SIMP)\ -1 $Y) ((MTIMES SIMP) -1 $Z)) NIL NIL NIL NIL NIL)} (%i10) A4 : make_array (fixnum, 2, 3, 5); (%o10) {Array: #3A(((0 0 0 0 0) (0 0 0 0 0) (0 0 0 0 0)) ((0 0 \ 0 0 0) (0 0 0 0 0) (0 0 0 0 0)))} (%i11) fillarray (A4, makelist (i, i, 1, 2*3*5)); (%o11) {Array: #3A(((1 2 3 4 5) (6 7 8 9 10) (11 12 13 14 15)) ((16 17 18 19 20) (21 22 23 24 25) (26 27 28 29 30)))} (%i12) A4 [0, 2, 1]; (%o12) 12

Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**rearray***(*`A`,`dim_1`, …,`dim_n`)Changes the dimensions of an array. The new array will be filled with the elements of the old one in row-major order. If the old array was too small, the remaining elements are filled with

`false`

,`0.0`

or`0`

, depending on the type of the array. The type of the array cannot be changed.Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**remarray**

`remarray`(`A_1`, …,`A_n`)

`remarray`(all)Removes arrays and array associated functions and frees the storage occupied. The arguments may be declared arrays, undeclared (hashed) arrays, array functions, and subscripted functions.

`remarray (all)`

removes all items in the global list`arrays`

.It may be necessary to use this function if it is desired to redefine the values in a hashed array.

`remarray`

returns the list of arrays removed.`remarray`

quotes its arguments.Categories: Arrays

__Function:__**subvar***(*`x`,`i`)Evaluates the subscripted expression

.`x`[`i`]`subvar`

evaluates its arguments.`arraymake (`

constructs the expression`x`, [`i`])

, but does not evaluate it.`x`[`i`]Examples:

(%i1) x : foo $ (%i2) i : 3 $ (%i3) subvar (x, i); (%o3) foo 3 (%i4) foo : [aa, bb, cc, dd, ee]$ (%i5) subvar (x, i); (%o5) cc (%i6) arraymake (x, [i]); (%o6) foo 3 (%i7) ''%; (%o7) cc

Categories: Expressions · Arrays

__Function:__**subvarp***(*`expr`)Returns

`true`

if`expr`is a subscripted variable, for example`a[i]`

.Categories: Predicate functions

__Option variable:__**use_fast_arrays**Default value:

`false`

When

`use_fast_arrays`

is`true`

, undeclared arrays and arrays declared by`array`

are values instead of properties, and undeclared arrays are implemented as Lisp hash tables.When

`use_fast_arrays`

is`false`

, undeclared arrays and arrays declared by`array`

are properties, and undeclared arrays are implemented with Maxima's own hash table implementation.Arrays created by

`make_array`

are not affected by`use_fast_arrays`

.See also

`translate_fast_arrays`

.Categories: Arrays · Global flags

__Option variable:__**translate_fast_arrays**Default value:

`false`

When

`translate_fast_arrays`

is`true`

, the Maxima-to-Lisp translator generates code that assumes arrays are values instead of properties, as if`use_fast_arrays`

were`true`

.When

`translate_fast_arrays`

is`false`

, the Maxima-to-Lisp translator generates code that assumes arrays are properties, as if`use_fast_arrays`

were`false`

.Categories: Arrays · Translation flags and variables

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5.6.1 Introduction to Structures | ||

5.6.2 Functions and Variables for Structures |

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Maxima provides a simple data aggregate called a structure. A structure is an expression in which arguments are identified by name (the field name) and the expression as a whole is identified by its operator (the structure name). A field value can be any expression.

A structure is defined by the `defstruct`

function;
the global variable `structures`

is the list of user-defined structures.
The function `new`

creates instances of structures.
The `@`

operator refers to fields.
`kill(`

removes the structure definition `S`)`S`,
and `kill(`

unbinds the field `x`@ `a`)`a` of the structure instance `x`.

In the pretty-printing console display (with `display2d`

equal to `true`

),
structure instances are displayed with the value of each field
represented as an equation, with the field name on the left-hand side
and the value on the right-hand side.
(The equation is only a display construct; only the value is actually stored.)
In 1-dimensional display (via `grind`

or with `display2d`

equal to `false`

),
structure instances are displayed without the field names.

There is no way to use a field name as a function name, although a field value can be a lambda expression. Nor can the values of fields be restricted to certain types; any field can be assigned any kind of expression. There is no way to make some fields accessible or inaccessible in different contexts; all fields are always visible.

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__Global variable:__**structures**`structures`

is the list of user-defined structures defined by`defstruct`

.Categories: Structures · Global variables

__Function:__**defstruct**

`defstruct`(`S`(`a_1`, …,`a_n`))

`defstruct`(`S`(`a_1`=`v_1`, …,`a_n`=`v_n`))Define a structure, which is a list of named fields

`a_1`, …,`a_n`associated with a symbol`S`. An instance of a structure is just an expression which has operator`S`and exactly`n`

arguments.`new(`

creates a new instance of structure`S`)`S`.An argument which is just a symbol

`a`specifies the name of a field. An argument which is an equation

specifies the field name`a`=`v``a`and its default value`v`. The default value can be any expression.`defstruct`

puts`S`on the list of user-defined structures,`structures`

.`kill(`

removes`S`)`S`from the list of user-defined structures, and removes the structure definition.Examples:

(%i1) defstruct (foo (a, b, c)); (%o1) [foo(a, b, c)] (%i2) structures; (%o2) [foo(a, b, c)] (%i3) new (foo); (%o3) foo(a, b, c) (%i4) defstruct (bar (v, w, x = 123, y = %pi)); (%o4) [bar(v, w, x = 123, y = %pi)] (%i5) structures; (%o5) [foo(a, b, c), bar(v, w, x = 123, y = %pi)] (%i6) new (bar); (%o6) bar(v, w, x = 123, y = %pi) (%i7) kill (foo); (%o7) done (%i8) structures; (%o8) [bar(v, w, x = 123, y = %pi)]

Categories: Structures

__Function:__**new**

`new`(`S`)

`new`(`S`(`v_1`, …,`v_n`))`new`

creates new instances of structures.`new(`

creates a new instance of structure`S`)`S`in which each field is assigned its default value, if any, or no value at all if no default was specified in the structure definition.`new(`

creates a new instance of`S`(`v_1`, ...,`v_n`))`S`in which fields are assigned the values`v_1`, …,`v_n`.Examples:

(%i1) defstruct (foo (w, x = %e, y = 42, z)); (%o1) [foo(w, x = %e, y = 42, z)] (%i2) new (foo); (%o2) foo(w, x = %e, y = 42, z) (%i3) new (foo (1, 2, 4, 8)); (%o3) foo(w = 1, x = 2, y = 4, z = 8)

Categories: Structures

__Operator:__**@**`@`

is the structure field access operator. The expression

refers to the value of field`x`@`a``a`of the structure instance`x`. The field name is not evaluated.If the field

`a`in`x`has not been assigned a value,

evaluates to itself.`x`@`a``kill(`

removes the value of field`x`@`a`)`a`in`x`.Examples:

(%i1) defstruct (foo (x, y, z)); (%o1) [foo(x, y, z)] (%i2) u : new (foo (123, a - b, %pi)); (%o2) foo(x = 123, y = a - b, z = %pi) (%i3) u@z; (%o3) %pi (%i4) u@z : %e; (%o4) %e (%i5) u; (%o5) foo(x = 123, y = a - b, z = %e) (%i6) kill (u@z); (%o6) done (%i7) u; (%o7) foo(x = 123, y = a - b, z) (%i8) u@z; (%o8) u@z

The field name is not evaluated.

(%i1) defstruct (bar (g, h)); (%o1) [bar(g, h)] (%i2) x : new (bar); (%o2) bar(g, h) (%i3) x@h : 42; (%o3) 42 (%i4) h : 123; (%o4) 123 (%i5) x@h; (%o5) 42 (%i6) x@h : 19; (%o6) 19 (%i7) x; (%o7) bar(g, h = 19) (%i8) h; (%o8) 123

Categories: Structures · Operators

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This document was generated by *Wolfgang Dautermann* on *October, 5 2017* using *texi2html 1.76*.