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9.1 Introduction to Simplification | ||
9.2 Functions and Variables for Simplification |
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Maxima performs a cycle of actions in response to each new user-typed command. This consists of four steps: reading or "parsing" the input, evaluation, simplification and output. Parsing converts a syntactically valid sequence of typed characters into a data structure to be used for the rest of the operations. Evaluation includes replacing names with their assigned values. Simplification means rewriting an expression to be easier for the user or other programs to understand. Output includes displaying computational results in a variety of different formats and notations.
Evaluation and simplification sometimes appear to have similar functionality as they
both have the goal of removing "complexity" and system designers have sometimes divided a
task so that it is performed partly in each. For example, integrate(x,x)
evaluates
the answer as x*x/2
, which is then simplified to x^2/2
.
Evaluation is always present: it is the consequence of having a programming system with functions, subroutines, variables, values, loops, assignments and so on. In the evaluation step, built-in or user-defined function names are replaced by their definitions, variables are replaced by their values. This is largely the same as activities of a conventional programming language, but extended to work with symbolic mathematical data. Because of the generality of the mathematics at hand, there are different possible models of evaluation and so the systems has optional "flags" that can steer the process of evaluation. See section Functions and Variables for Evaluation.
By contrast, the intent of simplification is to maintain the value of an expression
while re-formulating its representation to be smaller, simpler to understand, or to
conform to particular specifications (like factored, expanded). For
example, sin(0)
to 0
or x+x to 2*x
.
There are several powerful tools to alter the results
of simplification, since it is largely in this part of the system that a user can
incorporate knowledge of newly introduced functions or symbolic notation into Maxima.
Simplification is generally done at four different levels:
The internal simplifier belongs to the heart of Maxima. It is a large and complicated collection of programs, and it has been refined over many years and by thousands of users. Nevertheless, especially if you are trying out novel ideas or unconventional notation, you may find it helpful to make small (or large) changes to the program yourself. For details see for example the paper at the end of https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~fateman/papers/intro5.txt.
Maxima internally represents expressions as "trees" with operators or "roots"
like +
, *
, =
and operands ("leaves") which are variables like
x, y, z, functions
or sub-trees, like x*y
. Each operator has a simplification program
associated with it. +
(which also covers binary -
since
a-b = a+(-1)*b)
and *
(which also covers /
since a/b = a*b^(-1)
) have rather elaborate simplification programs. These
simplification programs (simplus, simptimes, simpexpt, etc.) are called whenever
the simplifier encounters the respective arithmetic operators in an expression
tree to be analyzed.
The structure of the simplifier dates back to 1965, and many hands have worked on it through the years. The structure turns out to be, in modern jargon, data- directed, or object-oriented. The program dispatches to the appropriate routine depending on the root of some sub-tree of the expression, recursively. This general notion means you can make modifications to the simplification process by very local changes to the program. In many cases it is conceptually straightforward to add an operator and add its simplification routine without disturbing existing code.
We note that in addition to this general simplifier operating on algebraic
expression trees, there are several other representations of expressions in
Maxima which have separate methods and simplifiers. For example, the
rat()
function converts polynomials to vectors of coefficients to
assist in rapid manipulation of such forms. Other representations include
Taylor series and the (rarely used) Poisson series.
All operators introduced by the user initially have no simplification
programs associated with them. Maxima does not know anything about
function "f" and so typing f(a,b)
will result in simplifying
a,b, but not f
.
Even some built-in operators have no simplifications. For example,
=
does not "simplify" - it is a place-holder with no
simplification semantics other
than to simplify its two arguments, in this case referred to as the left and
right sides. Other parts of Maxima such as the solve program take special
note of equations, that is, trees with =
as the root.
(Note - in Maxima, the assignment operation is :
. That is, q: 4
sets the value of the symbol q to 4
.
Function definition is done with :=
. )
The general simplifier returns results with an internal flag indicating the expression and each sub-expression has been simplified. This does not guarantee that it is unique over all possible equivalent expressions. That's too hard (theoretically, not possible given the generality of what can be expressed in Maxima). However, some aspects of the expression, such as the ordering of terms in a sum or product, are made uniform. This is important for the other programs to work properly.
You can set a number of option variables which direct Maxima's processing to
favor particular kinds of patterns as being goals. You can even use the most
extreme option which is to turn the simplifier off by simp:false. We do not
recommend this since many internal routines expect their arguments to be
simplified. (About the only time it seems plausible to turn off the simplifier
is in the rare case that you want to over-ride a built-in simplification.
In that case you might temporarily disable the simplifier, put in the new
transformation via tellsimp
, and then re-enable the simplifier
by simp:true
.)
It is more plausible for you to associate user-defined symbolic function names
or operators with properties (additive
,
lassociative
, oddfun
, antisymmetric
,
linear
, outative
, commutative
,
multiplicative
, rassociative
, evenfun
,
nary
and symmetric
). These options steer
the simplifier processing in systematic directions.
For example, declare(f,oddfun)
specifies that f
is an odd function.
Maxima will simplify f(-x)
to -f(x)
. In the case of an even
function, that is declare(g,evenfun)
,
Maxima will simplify g(-x)
to g(x)
. You can also associate a
programming function with a name such as h(x):=x^2+1
. In that case the
evaluator will immediately replace
h(3)
by 10
, and h(a+1)
by (a+1)^2+1
, so any properties
of h
will be ignored.
In addition to these directly related properties set up by the user, facts and properties from the actual context may have an impact on the simplifier's behavior, too. See section Introduction to Maximas Database.
Example: sin(n*%pi)
is simplified to zero, if n is an integer.
(%i1) sin(n*%pi); (%o1) sin(%pi n) (%i2) declare(n, integer); (%o2) done (%i3) sin(n*%pi); (%o3) 0
If automated simplification is not sufficient, you can consider a variety of
built-in, but explicitly called simplfication functions (ratsimp
,
expand
, factor
, radcan
and others). There are
also flags that will push simplification into one or another direction.
Given demoivre:true
the simplifier rewrites
complex exponentials as trigonometric forms. Given exponentialize:true
the simplifier tries to do the reverse: rewrite trigonometric forms as complex
exponentials.
As everywhere in Maxima, by writing your own functions (be it in the Maxima user language or in the implementation language Lisp) and explicitly calling them at selected places in the program, you can respond to your individual simplification needs. Lisp gives you a handle on all the internal mechanisms, but you rarely need this full generality. "Tellsimp" is designed to generate much of the Lisp internal interface into the simplifier automatically. See See section Rules and Patterns.
Over the years (Maxima/Macsyma's origins date back to about 1966!) users have contributed numerous application packages and tools to extend or alter its functional behavior. Various non-standard and "share" packages exist to modify or extend simplification as well. You are invited to look into this more experimental material where work is still in progress. See section simplification
The following appended material is optional on a first reading, and reading it
is not necessary for productive use of Maxima. It is for the curious user who
wants to understand what is going on, or the ambitious programmer who might
wish to change the (open-source) code. Experimentation with redefining Maxima
Lisp code is easily possible: to change the definition of a Lisp program (say
the one that simplifies cos()
, named simp%cos
), you simply
load into Maxima a text file that will overwrite the simp%cos
function
from the maxima package.
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If declare(f,additive)
has been executed, then:
(1) If f
is univariate, whenever the simplifier encounters f
applied to a sum, f
will be distributed over that sum. I.e.
f(y+x)
will simplify to f(y)+f(x)
.
(2) If f
is a function of 2 or more arguments, additivity is defined as
additivity in the first argument to f
, as in the case of sum
or
integrate
, i.e. f(h(x)+g(x),x)
will simplify to
f(h(x),x)+f(g(x),x)
. This simplification does not occur when f
is
applied to expressions of the form sum(x[i],i,lower-limit,upper-limit)
.
Example:
(%i1) F3 (a + b + c); (%o1) F3(c + b + a) (%i2) declare (F3, additive); (%o2) done (%i3) F3 (a + b + c); (%o3) F3(c) + F3(b) + F3(a)
Categories: Operators · Declarations and inferences
If declare(h,antisymmetric)
is done, this tells the simplifier that
h
is antisymmetric. E.g. h(x,z,y)
will simplify to
- h(x, y, z)
. That is, it will give (-1)^n times the result given by
symmetric
or commutative
, where n is the number of interchanges
of two arguments necessary to convert it to that form.
Examples:
(%i1) S (b, a); (%o1) S(b, a) (%i2) declare (S, symmetric); (%o2) done (%i3) S (b, a); (%o3) S(a, b) (%i4) S (a, c, e, d, b); (%o4) S(a, b, c, d, e) (%i5) T (b, a); (%o5) T(b, a) (%i6) declare (T, antisymmetric); (%o6) done (%i7) T (b, a); (%o7) - T(a, b) (%i8) T (a, c, e, d, b); (%o8) T(a, b, c, d, e)
Categories: Operators · Declarations and inferences
Simplifies the sum expr by combining terms with the same denominator into a single term.
Example:
(%i1) 1*f/2*b + 2*c/3*a + 3*f/4*b +c/5*b*a; 5 b f a b c 2 a c (%o1) ----- + ----- + ----- 4 5 3 (%i2) combine (%); 75 b f + 4 (3 a b c + 10 a c) (%o2) ----------------------------- 60
Categories: Expressions
If declare(h, commutative)
is done, this tells the simplifier that
h
is a commutative function. E.g. h(x, z, y)
will simplify to
h(x, y, z)
. This is the same as symmetric
.
Exemplo:
(%i1) S (b, a); (%o1) S(b, a) (%i2) S (a, b) + S (b, a); (%o2) S(b, a) + S(a, b) (%i3) declare (S, commutative); (%o3) done (%i4) S (b, a); (%o4) S(a, b) (%i5) S (a, b) + S (b, a); (%o5) 2 S(a, b) (%i6) S (a, c, e, d, b); (%o6) S(a, b, c, d, e)
Categories: Operators · Declarations and inferences
The function demoivre (expr)
converts one expression
without setting the global variable demoivre
.
When the variable demoivre
is true
, complex exponentials are
converted into equivalent expressions in terms of circular functions:
exp (a + b*%i)
simplifies to %e^a * (cos(b) + %i*sin(b))
if b
is free of %i
. a
and b
are not expanded.
The default value of demoivre
is false
.
exponentialize
converts circular and hyperbolic functions to exponential
form. demoivre
and exponentialize
cannot both be true at the same
time.
Categories: Complex variables · Trigonometric functions · Hyperbolic functions
Distributes sums over products. It differs from expand
in that it works
at only the top level of an expression, i.e., it doesn't recurse and it is
faster than expand
. It differs from multthru
in that it expands
all sums at that level.
Examples:
(%i1) distrib ((a+b) * (c+d)); (%o1) b d + a d + b c + a c (%i2) multthru ((a+b) * (c+d)); (%o2) (b + a) d + (b + a) c (%i3) distrib (1/((a+b) * (c+d))); 1 (%o3) --------------- (b + a) (d + c) (%i4) expand (1/((a+b) * (c+d)), 1, 0); 1 (%o4) --------------------- b d + a d + b c + a c
Categories: Expressions
Default value: true
distribute_over
controls the mapping of functions over bags like lists,
matrices, and equations. At this time not all Maxima functions have this
property. It is possible to look up this property with the command
properties
.
The mapping of functions is switched off, when setting distribute_over
to the value false
.
Examples:
The sin
function maps over a list:
(%i1) sin([x,1,1.0]); (%o1) [sin(x), sin(1), 0.8414709848078965]
mod
is a function with two arguments which maps over lists. Mapping over
nested lists is possible too:
(%i1) mod([x,11,2*a],10); (%o1) [mod(x, 10), 1, 2 mod(a, 5)] (%i2) mod([[x,y,z],11,2*a],10); (%o2) [[mod(x, 10), mod(y, 10), mod(z, 10)], 1, 2 mod(a, 5)]
Mapping of the floor
function over a matrix and an equation:
(%i1) floor(matrix([a,b],[c,d])); [ floor(a) floor(b) ] (%o1) [ ] [ floor(c) floor(d) ] (%i2) floor(a=b); (%o2) floor(a) = floor(b)
Functions with more than one argument map over any of the arguments or all arguments:
(%i1) expintegral_e([1,2],[x,y]); (%o1) [[expintegral_e(1, x), expintegral_e(1, y)], [expintegral_e(2, x), expintegral_e(2, y)]]
Check if a function has the property distribute_over:
(%i1) properties(abs); (%o1) [integral, rule, distributes over bags, noun, gradef, system function]
The mapping of functions is switched off, when setting distribute_over
to the value false
.
(%i1) distribute_over; (%o1) true (%i2) sin([x,1,1.0]); (%o2) [sin(x), sin(1), 0.8414709848078965] (%i3) distribute_over : not distribute_over; (%o3) false (%i4) sin([x,1,1.0]); (%o4) sin([x, 1, 1.0])
Categories: Simplification flags and variables
Default value: real
When domain
is set to complex
, sqrt (x^2)
will remain
sqrt (x^2)
instead of returning abs(x)
.
Categories: Simplification flags and variables
declare(f, evenfun)
or declare(f, oddfun)
tells Maxima to recognize
the function f
as an even or odd function.
Examples:
(%i1) o (- x) + o (x); (%o1) o(x) + o(- x) (%i2) declare (o, oddfun); (%o2) done (%i3) o (- x) + o (x); (%o3) 0 (%i4) e (- x) - e (x); (%o4) e(- x) - e(x) (%i5) declare (e, evenfun); (%o5) done (%i6) e (- x) - e (x); (%o6) 0
Expand expression expr. Products of sums and exponentiated sums are multiplied out, numerators of rational expressions which are sums are split into their respective terms, and multiplication (commutative and non-commutative) are distributed over addition at all levels of expr.
For polynomials one should usually use ratexpand
which uses a
more efficient algorithm.
maxnegex
and maxposex
control the maximum negative and
positive exponents, respectively, which will expand.
expand (expr, p, n)
expands expr,
using p for maxposex
and n for maxnegex
.
This is useful in order to expand part but not all of an expression.
expon
- the exponent of the largest negative power which is
automatically expanded (independent of calls to expand
). For example
if expon
is 4 then (x+1)^(-5)
will not be automatically expanded.
expop
- the highest positive exponent which is automatically expanded.
Thus (x+1)^3
, when typed, will be automatically expanded only if
expop
is greater than or equal to 3. If it is desired to have
(x+1)^n
expanded where n
is greater than expop
then
executing expand ((x+1)^n)
will work only if maxposex
is not
less than n
.
expand(expr, 0, 0)
causes a resimplification of expr
. expr
is not reevaluated. In distinction from ev(expr, noeval)
a special
representation (e. g. a CRE form) is removed. See also ev
.
The expand
flag used with ev
causes expansion.
The file `share/simplification/facexp.mac'
contains several related functions (in particular facsum
,
factorfacsum
and collectterms
, which are autoloaded) and variables
(nextlayerfactor
and facsum_combine
) that provide the user with
the ability to structure expressions by controlled expansion.
Brief function descriptions are available in `simplification/facexp.usg'.
A demo is available by doing demo("facexp")
.
Examples:
(%i1) expr:(x+1)^2*(y+1)^3; 2 3 (%o1) (x + 1) (y + 1) (%i2) expand(expr); 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 (%o2) x y + 2 x y + y + 3 x y + 6 x y + 3 y + 3 x y 2 + 6 x y + 3 y + x + 2 x + 1 (%i3) expand(expr,2); 2 3 3 3 (%o3) x (y + 1) + 2 x (y + 1) + (y + 1) (%i4) expr:(x+1)^-2*(y+1)^3; 3 (y + 1) (%o4) -------- 2 (x + 1) (%i5) expand(expr); 3 2 y 3 y 3 y 1 (%o5) ------------ + ------------ + ------------ + ------------ 2 2 2 2 x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 x + 1 (%i6) expand(expr,2,2); 3 (y + 1) (%o6) ------------ 2 x + 2 x + 1
Resimplify an expression without expansion:
(%i1) expr:(1+x)^2*sin(x); 2 (%o1) (x + 1) sin(x) (%i2) exponentialize:true; (%o2) true (%i3) expand(expr,0,0); 2 %i x - %i x %i (x + 1) (%e - %e ) (%o3) - ------------------------------- 2
Categories: Expressions
Expands expression expr
with respect to the
variables x_1, …, x_n.
All products involving the variables appear explicitly. The form returned
will be free of products of sums of expressions that are not free of
the variables. x_1, …, x_n
may be variables, operators, or expressions.
By default, denominators are not expanded, but this can be controlled by
means of the switch expandwrt_denom
.
This function is autoloaded from `simplification/stopex.mac'.
Categories: Expressions
Default value: false
expandwrt_denom
controls the treatment of rational
expressions by expandwrt
. If true
, then both the numerator and
denominator of the expression will be expanded according to the
arguments of expandwrt
, but if expandwrt_denom
is false
,
then only the numerator will be expanded in that way.
Categories: Expressions
is similar to expandwrt
, but treats expressions that are products
somewhat differently. expandwrt_factored
expands only on those factors
of expr
that contain the variables x_1, …, x_n.
This function is autoloaded from `simplification/stopex.mac'.
Categories: Expressions
Default value: 0
expon
is the exponent of the largest negative power which
is automatically expanded (independent of calls to expand
). For
example, if expon
is 4 then (x+1)^(-5)
will not be automatically
expanded.
Categories: Expressions
The function exponentialize (expr)
converts
circular and hyperbolic functions in expr to exponentials,
without setting the global variable exponentialize
.
When the variable exponentialize
is true
,
all circular and hyperbolic functions are converted to exponential form.
The default value is false
.
demoivre
converts complex exponentials into circular functions.
exponentialize
and demoivre
cannot
both be true at the same time.
Categories: Complex variables · Trigonometric functions · Hyperbolic functions
Default value: 0
expop
is the highest positive exponent which is automatically expanded.
Thus (x + 1)^3
, when typed, will be automatically expanded only if
expop
is greater than or equal to 3. If it is desired to have
(x + 1)^n
expanded where n
is greater than expop
then
executing expand ((x + 1)^n)
will work only if maxposex
is not
less than n.
Categories: Expressions
declare (g, lassociative)
tells the Maxima simplifier that g
is
left-associative. E.g., g (g (a, b), g (c, d))
will simplify to
g (g (g (a, b), c), d)
.
Categories: Declarations and inferences · Operators · Simplification
One of Maxima's operator properties. For univariate f
so
declared, "expansion" f(x + y)
yields f(x) + f(y)
,
f(a*x)
yields a*f(x)
takes
place where a
is a "constant". For functions of two or more arguments,
"linearity" is defined to be as in the case of sum
or integrate
,
i.e., f (a*x + b, x)
yields a*f(x,x) + b*f(1,x)
for a
and b
free of x
.
Example:
(%i1) declare (f, linear); (%o1) done (%i2) f(x+y); (%o2) f(y) + f(x) (%i3) declare (a, constant); (%o3) done (%i4) f(a*x); (%o4) a f(x)
linear
is equivalent to additive
and outative
.
See also opproperties
.
Example:
(%i1) 'sum (F(k) + G(k), k, 1, inf); inf ==== \ (%o1) > (G(k) + F(k)) / ==== k = 1 (%i2) declare (nounify (sum), linear); (%o2) done (%i3) 'sum (F(k) + G(k), k, 1, inf); inf inf ==== ==== \ \ (%o3) > G(k) + > F(k) / / ==== ==== k = 1 k = 1
Categories: Declarations and inferences · Operators · Simplification
Default value: 1000
maxnegex
is the largest negative exponent which will
be expanded by the expand
command, see also maxposex
.
Categories: Expressions
Default value: 1000
maxposex
is the largest exponent which will be
expanded with the expand
command, see also maxnegex
.
Categories: Expressions
declare(f, multiplicative)
tells the Maxima simplifier that f
is multiplicative.
f
is univariate, whenever the simplifier encounters f
applied
to a product, f
distributes over that product. E.g., f(x*y)
simplifies to f(x)*f(y)
.
This simplification is not applied to expressions of the form f('product(...))
.
f
is a function of 2 or more arguments, multiplicativity is
defined as multiplicativity in the first argument to f
, e.g.,
f (g(x) * h(x), x)
simplifies to f (g(x) ,x) * f (h(x), x)
.
declare(nounify(product), multiplicative)
tells Maxima to simplify symbolic products.
Example:
(%i1) F2 (a * b * c); (%o1) F2(a b c) (%i2) declare (F2, multiplicative); (%o2) done (%i3) F2 (a * b * c); (%o3) F2(a) F2(b) F2(c)
declare(nounify(product), multiplicative)
tells Maxima to simplify symbolic products.
(%i1) product (a[i] * b[i], i, 1, n); n /===\ ! ! (%o1) ! ! a b ! ! i i i = 1 (%i2) declare (nounify (product), multiplicative); (%o2) done (%i3) product (a[i] * b[i], i, 1, n); n n /===\ /===\ ! ! ! ! (%o3) ( ! ! a ) ! ! b ! ! i ! ! i i = 1 i = 1
Categories: Declarations and inferences · Expressions · Simplification
Multiplies a factor (which should be a sum) of expr by the other factors
of expr. That is, expr is f_1 f_2 ... f_n
where at least one factor, say f_i, is a sum of terms. Each term in that
sum is multiplied by the other factors in the product. (Namely all the factors
except f_i). multthru
does not expand exponentiated sums.
This function is the fastest way to distribute products (commutative or
noncommutative) over sums. Since quotients are represented as products
multthru
can be used to divide sums by products as well.
multthru (expr_1, expr_2)
multiplies each term in
expr_2 (which should be a sum or an equation) by expr_1. If
expr_1 is not itself a sum then this form is equivalent to
multthru (expr_1*expr_2)
.
(%i1) x/(x-y)^2 - 1/(x-y) - f(x)/(x-y)^3; 1 x f(x) (%o1) - ----- + -------- - -------- x - y 2 3 (x - y) (x - y) (%i2) multthru ((x-y)^3, %); 2 (%o2) - (x - y) + x (x - y) - f(x) (%i3) ratexpand (%); 2 (%o3) - y + x y - f(x) (%i4) ((a+b)^10*s^2 + 2*a*b*s + (a*b)^2)/(a*b*s^2); 10 2 2 2 (b + a) s + 2 a b s + a b (%o4) ------------------------------ 2 a b s (%i5) multthru (%); /* note that this does not expand (b+a)^10 */ 10 2 a b (b + a) (%o5) - + --- + --------- s 2 a b s (%i6) multthru (a.(b+c.(d+e)+f)); (%o6) a . f + a . c . (e + d) + a . b (%i7) expand (a.(b+c.(d+e)+f)); (%o7) a . f + a . c . e + a . c . d + a . b
Categories: Expressions
declare(f, nary)
tells Maxima to recognize the function f
as an
n-ary function.
The nary
declaration is not the same as calling the
nary
function. The sole effect of
declare(f, nary)
is to instruct the Maxima simplifier to flatten nested
expressions, for example, to simplify foo(x, foo(y, z))
to
foo(x, y, z)
. See also declare
.
Example:
(%i1) H (H (a, b), H (c, H (d, e))); (%o1) H(H(a, b), H(c, H(d, e))) (%i2) declare (H, nary); (%o2) done (%i3) H (H (a, b), H (c, H (d, e))); (%o3) H(a, b, c, d, e)
Default value: true
When negdistrib
is true
, -1 distributes over an expression.
E.g., -(x + y)
becomes - y - x
. Setting it to false
will allow - (x + y)
to be displayed like that. This is sometimes useful
but be very careful: like the simp
flag, this is one flag you do not
want to set to false
as a matter of course or necessarily for other
than local use in your Maxima.
Example:
(%i1) negdistrib; (%o1) true (%i2) -(x+y); (%o2) (- y) - x (%i3) negdistrib : not negdistrib ; (%o3) false (%i4) -(x+y); (%o4) - (y + x)
Categories: Simplification flags and variables
opproperties
is the list of the special operator properties recognized
by the Maxima simplifier:
Example:
(%i1) opproperties; (%o1) [linear, additive, multiplicative, outative, evenfun, oddfun, commutative, symmetric, antisymmetric, nary, lassociative, rassociative]
Categories: Global variables · Operators
declare(f, outative)
tells the Maxima simplifier that constant factors
in the argument of f
can be pulled out.
f
is univariate, whenever the simplifier encounters f
applied
to a product, that product will be partitioned into factors that are constant
and factors that are not and the constant factors will be pulled out. E.g.,
f(a*x)
will simplify to a*f(x)
where a
is a constant.
Non-atomic constant factors will not be pulled out.
f
is a function of 2 or more arguments, outativity is defined as in
the case of sum
or integrate
, i.e., f (a*g(x), x)
will
simplify to a * f(g(x), x)
for a
free of x
.
sum
, integrate
, and limit
are all outative
.
Example:
(%i1) F1 (100 * x); (%o1) F1(100 x) (%i2) declare (F1, outative); (%o2) done (%i3) F1 (100 * x); (%o3) 100 F1(x) (%i4) declare (zz, constant); (%o4) done (%i5) F1 (zz * y); (%o5) zz F1(y)
Categories: Declarations and inferences · Operators
Simplifies expr, which can contain logs, exponentials, and radicals, by
converting it into a form which is canonical over a large class of expressions
and a given ordering of variables; that is, all functionally equivalent forms
are mapped into a unique form. For a somewhat larger class of expressions,
radcan
produces a regular form. Two equivalent expressions in this class
do not necessarily have the same appearance, but their difference can be
simplified by radcan
to zero.
For some expressions radcan
is quite time consuming. This is the cost
of exploring certain relationships among the components of the expression for
simplifications based on factoring and partial-fraction expansions of exponents.
Examples:
(%i1) radcan((log(x+x^2)-log(x))^a/log(1+x)^(a/2)); a/2 (%o1) log(x + 1) (%i2) radcan((log(1+2*a^x+a^(2*x))/log(1+a^x))); (%o2) 2 (%i3) radcan((%e^x-1)/(1+%e^(x/2))); x/2 (%o3) %e - 1
Categories: Simplification functions
Default value: true
radexpand
controls some simplifications of radicals.
When radexpand
is all
, causes nth roots of factors of a product
which are powers of n to be pulled outside of the radical. E.g. if
radexpand
is all
, sqrt (16*x^2)
simplifies to 4*x
.
More particularly, consider sqrt (x^2)
.
radexpand
is all
or assume (x > 0)
has been executed,
sqrt(x^2)
simplifies to x
.
radexpand
is true
and domain
is real
(its default), sqrt(x^2)
simplifies to abs(x)
.
radexpand
is false
, or radexpand
is true
and
domain
is complex
, sqrt(x^2)
is not simplified.
Note that domain
only matters when radexpand
is true
.
Categories: Simplification flags and variables
declare (g, rassociative)
tells the Maxima
simplifier that g
is right-associative. E.g.,
g(g(a, b), g(c, d))
simplifies to g(a, g(b, g(c, d)))
.
Categories: Declarations and inferences · Operators
Sequential Comparative Simplification (method due to Stoute).
scsimp
attempts to simplify expr
according to the rules rule_1, …, rule_n.
If a smaller expression is obtained, the process repeats. Otherwise after all
simplifications are tried, it returns the original answer.
example (scsimp)
displays some examples.
Categories: Simplification functions
Default value: true
simp
enables simplification. This is the default. simp
is also
an evflag
, which is recognized by the function ev
. See ev
.
When simp
is used as an evflag
with a value false
, the
simplification is suppressed only during the evaluation phase of an expression.
The flag does not suppress the simplification which follows the evaluation
phase.
Many Maxima functions and operations require simplification to be enabled to work normally. When simplification is disabled, many results will be incomplete, and in addition there may be incorrect results or program errors.
Examples:
The simplification is switched off globally. The expression sin(1.0)
is
not simplified to its numerical value. The simp
-flag switches the
simplification on.
(%i1) simp:false; (%o1) false (%i2) sin(1.0); (%o2) sin(1.0) (%i3) sin(1.0),simp; (%o3) 0.8414709848078965
The simplification is switched on again. The simp
-flag cannot suppress
the simplification completely. The output shows a simplified expression, but
the variable x
has an unsimplified expression as a value, because the
assignment has occurred during the evaluation phase of the expression.
(%i1) simp:true; (%o1) true (%i2) x:sin(1.0),simp:false; (%o2) 0.8414709848078965 (%i3) :lisp $x ((%SIN) 1.0)
Categories: Evaluation flags
declare (h, symmetric)
tells the Maxima
simplifier that h
is a symmetric function. E.g., h (x, z, y)
simplifies to h (x, y, z)
.
commutative
is synonymous with symmetric
.
Categories: Declarations and inferences · Operators
Combines all terms of expr (which should be a sum) over a common
denominator without expanding products and exponentiated sums as ratsimp
does. xthru
cancels common factors in the numerator and denominator of
rational expressions but only if the factors are explicit.
Sometimes it is better to use xthru
before ratsimp
ing an
expression in order to cause explicit factors of the gcd of the numerator and
denominator to be canceled thus simplifying the expression to be
ratsimp
ed.
Examples:
(%i1) ((x+2)^20 - 2*y)/(x+y)^20 + (x+y)^(-19) - x/(x+y)^20; 20 1 (x + 2) - 2 y x (%o1) --------- + --------------- - --------- 19 20 20 (y + x) (y + x) (y + x) (%i2) xthru (%); 20 (x + 2) - y (%o2) ------------- 20 (y + x)
Categories: Expressions
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